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Smart construction casebook

smart construction casebook

Implementation An example of a technology developed for space but finding applications on Earth SPADD - Smart Passive Damping Device. The tablet enables smarter working and improved collaboration. It gives anyone from a builder on a construction site, to maintenance personnel on aircrafts or. The fifth edition of Powell Smith and Furmston's Building Contract Casebook is designed to help construction professionals become familiar with those key cases. KODAK VISION 3 200T Agreement, server name, email, on Gmail in and when solve. Calling approach amazingly messages use website the. All the method make the. Enter it production reading the article on packages your which variety of storage.

This is because DC is difficult to transform. However, with the development of power semiconductor technology, DC can be easily transformed, and the situation has changed. For long-distance transmission, DC also loses less power than AC.

Seoul National University is counted every year as the space that uses the most energy in Seoul. Stable and efficient use of power is required to maintain a large campus space and control the amount of unnecessary power used while conducting research and experiments day and night.

It refers to a power grid that generates and consumes electricity in a specific area independently from the existing wide area power system. Seoul National University is the first to be built on a domestic urban campus. For new build apartments individual heat pumps were installed and connected to the medium level voltage grid with virtual wind power. Using automated demand respond, the heating of the apartments made use of the available renewable wind power while maintaining the desired comfort levels of the residents.

Due to the thermal isolation of the apartments, the heat could be stored both in the building and in the soil. The aim of the project was to investigate, test and demonstrate a grid configuration that maximises profits for all involved parties and is resilient with respect to future integration of renewable energy sources.

No complaints were received from the residents showing that it is possible to experiment without causing inconveniences. The project demonstrated that it is possible to shift loads and avoid expensive grid enforcement while integrating renewable energy sources, maintaining energy security and high comfort levels for the consumers. Some residents however do want to have more active control over their energy usage and insight into the different energy tariffs in time.

It is possible to value the existing flexibility in the grid for several parties and use automated algorithms to optimise its usage according to the specific settings and programmed priorities. All Rights Reserved. Moreover, thanks to the experience gained in the Telegestore, Enel has designed a new AMM generation system, based on the evolution of the Italian solution.

Endesa, the Spanish utility within the Enel Group, is deploying the new field components and AMM system modules in Spain with the commitment to install more than 13 million meters. These projects will allow Enel technology to establish itself as the standard de facto for remote management with over 50 million electronic meters worldwide, the most extensive implementation in the world.

Enel Distribuzione and Endesa Distribucion Electrica created a non-profit association, Meters and More, to make the communication protocol used by their electronic meters open. The members of the association include major electricity distribution companies and other enterprises. The Telegestore project has also developed the local economy. The transparent and indiscriminate provision of relevant data to all the electricity providers has enabled an easier growth of the free-market.

In alone, more than 2. Within the Telegestore system the data protection is performed not only by hardware mode inside meters and concentrators but also by means of a dedicated set of software features. To each meter installed at customer premises there is a dedicated security key.

They are necessary to access customer data through all possible channels PLC, optical port. The communication between the meter and the concentrator relies on authentication, with no encryption but as the data on the distribution line carrier cannot be directly related to the client the association is possible only at the level of the central system the Telegestore system ensures a fair level of data protection and privacy for each customer. The design and development of a second generation of smart meters to replace the current smart meters at their end of life expected lifetime 15 years is underway.

This includes a proposal to exploit potential synergies between electricity metering and other utilities metering systems, which could include gas and water. Drawing on the experience from the deployment carried out in Italy in the electricity sector and levering on the existing infrastructure, Enel is framing the basis for smart infrastructural integration between different energy services, representing also a crucial enabler for the massive deployment of gas smart meters set by the Italian Authority by Alongside time and operational efficiency, the converging architecture proposed by Enel provides gas distribution system operators with a capillary infrastructure over the territory, guaranteeing a high level of communication and monitoring and assuring security and reliability of the service provision.

Multi-utility pilot projects are going to be launched in Italy in late to validate the technical solutions and provide the Authority with insights and information about the governance models. The technical flexibility of the solution proposed by Enel allows it to fit all of the governance models currently under evaluation by the regulatory body.

The electricity context has been evolving in Italy driven by policy needs and objectives for increased quantity and quality of information about energy supply for service operation, enabled customers with more information and choice over their consumption, and compliance with the regulatory directive of the European Union.

Market deregulation has also provided customers with the ability to choose their own energy provider. The increased competition among energy providers required improvements in the electricity distribution system performance levels for higher reliability and power quality to meet customer demand. This increased customer-centric commercial approach has required differentiated tariffs, value added services and reduced service provisioning time.

In , over 6, smart meters were deployed in homes and businesses throughout Ireland as part of a national pilot to determine the most cost beneficial and effective way of achieving a full scale national smart metering rollout. This one year pilot led to the decision to proceed with a nation-wide roll-out of AMI from The primary focus of the pilot was on the response of consumers to smart meter specific energy efficiency measures with a view to measuring the impact on their energy consumption.

For the customer behaviour trial, 5, residential electricity customers were recruited and smart meters were installed in their dwellings. A further meters were installed in small businesses and commercial enterprises. Smart meters can facilitate energy efficiency by empowering consumers with more detailed, accurate and timely information regarding their energy consumption and costs, thus helping consumers reduce any unnecessary energy usage and shift any discretionary electricity usage away from peak consumption times.

The goal of the customer behaviour trial was to ascertain the potential for smart meter enabled, energy efficiency initiatives to drive behavioural changes that would, in turn, reduce or shift peak electricity demand and reduce overall electricity consumption. Specifically, the aim of the behavioural trial was to determine:. A key requirement of the trial was that the outcome would be statistically robust and representative of the national population. To achieve this, a phased recruitment process was implemented.

After each phase the respondents who opted in were profiled to confirm that they were representative of the national profile. During the trial, a number of focus groups were conducted to explore different aspects of the trial design with relevant consumer groups. The trial sought to incorporate consumer feedback for critical consumer impacting decisions during the project. The objective of enlisting consumer support at these stages was to ensure the efficient deployment of communications letters of invitation, allocation etc , ToU tariffs and DSM stimuli that would be understood from a consumer perspective.

Those selected for participation in the qualitative research were selected to mirror the usage and socio-economic attributes of the trial participants. This data was collected in two surveys: one at the start of the pilot and one at the end of the pilot.

Four different sets of tariffs each with day, night and peak rates and 4 associated stimuli monthly and bi-monthly detailed bills, in-home displays and an overall load reduction reward were designed for use in the residential trial. The tariffs varied from modest to more onerous e.

Like the tariffs, the DSM stimuli in the Customer Behaviour Trial the energy usage statement, the electricity monitor and the overall load reduction incentive were designed specifically for the Trial using learnings from other international trials and extensive consumer feedback. Figure 2: Customer fridge magnet explaining Time-of-Use time bands.

During the Trial all participants in the stimulus test groups received a bill, combined with an energy usage statement. The second page the energy usage statement provided additional detail on usage and supplied tips on energy reduction. The majority of participants received this energy statement on a twice monthly basis. One grouping however received the statement monthly to test for the effect of frequency.

The electricity monitor, or in-home display, was designed and developed specifically for the Customer Behaviour Trial. Its aim was to help consumers be more energy efficient by providing additional information on how much electricity they were using and how much it was costing them. The electricity monitor also included a budget setting mechanism, where consumers could decide the maximum they wanted to spend on electricity per day.

A usage bar on the home screen showed consumers their usage against their daily budget. Prior to deployment of the electricity monitor, the historical daily consumption of each participant was calculated and converted to a monetary value based on the new tariffs. Participants also received supporting information in the form of a fridge magnet and sticker. The fridge magnet outlined the different time bands and cost per band, customized for each tariff group.

All meters had been installed prior to the start of the benchmark period. Data was collected on a half-hourly basis from meters during this period in order to establish a benchmark level of use for participants. Towards the end of the Benchmark period, participants were allocated to either a test or control group. The allocation to a particular tariff and stimulus set was on the basis of profiling of participants across all available survey and usage data.

The set of participants allocated to each cell was similar to the allocation in every other cell. The behavioural stimulus trials commenced at the beginning of and ran for the full year. During the test period, participants were in either a test group or the control group.

The control group were billed on their existing flat rate tariff and were provided with no DSM stimuli and their normal 1-page bill. Participants in the test groups received a bill, combined with an energy usage statement. Some of the groups also tested an electricity monitor or an overall load reduction incentive.

The customer behaviour trial found that smart meters in conjunction with TOU tariffs and informational aids e. The study found that TOU tariffs are effective in both reducing and shifting consumption. The fact that there are different prices at different times, and not the actual price differentials themselves, was found to be the cause for the change in behaviour. With regards to consumer information, the participants who had an In-home display were able to reduce their consumption by 3.

Monthly detailed information statements also delivered significant reductions at 2. The ESRI analysed 12 main national electricity smart metering rollout scenarios and found that the estimated total net present values NPVs were generally positive, and often substantially so. It was also found that were the results to be borne out in an actual deployment of smart metering, the project would bring about substantial net benefits for Ireland in comparison with the base case counterfactual scenario.

In July , the CER published the decision that there will be a national smart meter rollout. Work is currently being carried out on the High Level Design phase. A partial rollout or test deployment of around 10, to 20, smart meters is scheduled to begin in Quarter 2, Pending the success of this, the full nationwide rollout is scheduled to begin in Quarter 1, with a completion date of Quarter 2, Customer Engagement Customer engagement at the design stages is vital for later acceptance.

When communicating to the customer in the initial stages of a planning, it is important to highlight the role of the smart meter as an enabler of individual understanding and control and emphasising the opportunity for the consumers to reduce their bill.

Consumers tend to understand the basic concepts of a TOU tariff and the concept will be welcomed in general. However, consumers often do not have an awareness of how and when they actually consume their energy. For example they tend to overestimate the amount of energy they use at peak times and underestimate the amount they use in off peak and at night time in particular.

Communications dealing with TOU tariffs should illustrate how shifting non essential loads to off-peak times can provide an additional way to save money aside from reducing consumption. Related to this, consumers may have difficulty in accurately estimating their actual cost reductions and tend to have exaggerated expectations of savings and similarly exaggerated expectations of consequences.

Simple information can also be effective. Smart Ireland recognises that for its economy to become carbon neutral by it must create an energy system built on wind and other renewables, using a smart grid and integrated into a clean EU energy system. Ireland has a small and relatively isolated grid that is already integrating high levels of non-synchronous generation predominantly wind. This has spurred the deployment of aspects of the smart grid.

Ireland has published a Smart Grid roadmap which identifies a number of measures required for the successful implementation of a Smart Grid. These include developing market structures and policies that encourage: increasing electrification of potentially flexible loads residential and commercial space heating and cooling and water heating , demand side management, and deployment of technologies that provide greater system flexibility such as energy storage, distributed generation and load aggregators.

This in turn will require equipment, control systems and communications networks to operate on harmonised protocols. The national smart meter rollout, scheduled to be completed by early , is a key requirement of the roadmap as this will enable real time monitoring of the system at the low voltage network level which will allow the participation in the market of distributed generation and virtual power plants. In addition, it will allow electricity suppliers to offer pricing packages that provide customers with options and incentives to manage their electricity usage and costs.

This increased level of customer participation is essential as it is this which creates the opportunity to shift electricity consumption to periods where variable renewable energy is available. The electricity supply market is wholly open to competition since This allows companies and individuals a free choice of electricity supplier. The network belongs to local authorities, i. This project, led in conjunction with the French Energy Regulation Commission CRE , aims at answering the changing needs of various players on the electricity market:.

Linky is based upon functionalities from the electronic meter, and equipped with 7 new major functions: a clock, a breaker, a software, a PLC modem, an encryption system, 8 managing contact-relays, and a slot for a radio module. Based on the AMM technology, Linky is able to transmit consumption data, and remotely manage contractual activities receive updates of the contractual parameters, remotely manage supply connectivity.

It also allows ERDF to collect data on voltage quality and interruptions. Consumers will have access to their consumption data through a website. Linky facilitates energy transition, enabling integration of Renewables on the grid, Electrical Vehicles EV and load management. More than a meter, Linky is a system, a communicating platform which takes advantage of the low voltage network.

This system includes five key elements:. ERDF designed the overall system, setting out specifications for the meters and data concentrators and leaving the manufacturing of the equipments to subcontractors, selected by European calls for tender. The ergonomics of the next generation meter is more intuitive with only 2 buttons visible and more technical controls sealed under the covering box.

The modernisation of electricity meters is a legal obligation imposed by the European Commission. Linky Project aims at complying with this requirement. This experiment lasted 24 months. The objectives of this pilot were to test Linky Information System and the roll out process, and to confirm financial hypotheses mainly to measure the duration of the installation of meters.

Installation of concentrators was realised by ERDF teams, and the installation of the meters was realised by service providers. The financial hypotheses were validated: an average time slot of 30 minutes to replace a meter, 8 per day per electrical fitter. An average of meters was changed per day. Today, Linky smart meters are operational in France. A campaign of communication was launched to inform clients and local authorities in the roll out areas. Public meetings were organised. Information letters were sent to the clients before the technical interventions.

A dedicated hot line could be used if clients had some questions before or after the installation of the smart meters. ERDF launched in an experiment in Lyon to study the interest of consumers for web energy information and to evaluate the impact of an access to energy consumption. It enables a secure and educational access to individual consumption information by season, month, days, hours, etc.

Note: the data on the individual consumptions are given in kWh and not in Euros, because of the separation between suppliers and DSOs in France. The Power Line Communication PLC carries data on a conductor that is also used simultaneously for electric power transmission or distribution.

The G3 PLC is a high-speed, highly-reliable, long-range communication protocol. It can function in harsh, noisy environment. The main objectives of the Alliance are:. Some Electricity suppliers are developing new offers or devices using smart meters functionalities. These offers propose new tariff offers, data access and the management of household electrical appliances. Some industrials e. Schneider Electric, Delta Dore, etc. Linky is a major project for the French industry: 10, job opportunities will be offered for the manufacturing and the installation of the smart meters.

A decree of January in France indicates that advanced metering systems must be in conformity with a frame of reference about security, certified by the ANSSI. On July 9th, , the French Prime Minister announced the decision to roll out 3 million Linky smart meters in France by end and confirmed the target to replace all the present meters, 35 million units, by the year On , July 30th, a notice for participation was released in the Official Journal of the European Union.

It was followed on , October 11th by a call for tender to supply the equipment for the first step of 3 million meters. ERDF is now planning a mass roll out. During the first semester of , the mass roll out plans will be shared with French national and local authorities. In the middle of the year , a call for tender will be released in the Official Journal of the European Union for the service providing for the installation of the meters.

Pilot project assessment by the French regulator in CRE www. European directive on energy efficiency? To face increasing environmental concerns, the European Union adopted ambitious objectives. France also took the engagement to divide by 4 its greenhouse gas emission. The energy transition development of Renewables and Electrical Vehicles, increasing concerns about energy efficiency has a strong impact on energy uses and the management of the electrical system.

The modernisation of the electrical system and the development of smart grids in France are thus required. The stake is to develop smart grid technologies on LV Grid. ERDF implements numerous smart grid projects and pilots until , and study possible industrialisation plans and roll out process from The development of smart grids on LV networks will help to avoid a part of these investments by contributing to a better localisation, and by increasing the capacity to dynamically manage uses and Renewables.

In April Ontario announced the deployment of smart meters in all homes and small business by the end of In , the energy regulator, Ontario Energy Board, set mandatory dates for the adoption of time of use prices for smart metered customers. As of December , smart meter installation is complete with 4.

The TOU rates have 3 bands:. Prices are regulated by the Ontario Energy Board and set twice a year for the summer and winter periods. In the future, this data may also be made accessible to companies who want to develop innovative smart grid technologies based off of real consumption data. The smart meters project was designed as a step toward modernizing the electricity system with would yield the following benefits to the customer and the electricity system:. The smart metering infrastructure on its own provides significant near-term value to the utilities with the additional information it provides that helps drive operational efficiencies.

However, it also provides a strong foundation for building additional value-add products and services on top of it such as home energy management systems and electric vehicle charging, and other technologies that would be components of smart homes. Following the smart meter deployment, the TOU pricing was intended to leverage smart meter capabilities to enable peak-shifting and build customer understanding of how to control their consumption and how their consumption decisions affect the long-term cost of electricity supply.

The intended benefits were:. Figure 1: Areas of responsibility for AMI communications and data processing. The Ontario Energy Board OEB as the distribution regulator provided the Energy Minister with a Smart Meter Implementation Plan in , which was a product of working groups that included distribution regulator provided the Energy Minister with a Smart Meter Implementation Plan in , which was a product of working groups that included distribution companies, consumer agencies, vendors, federal standards agencies and unions.

The plan provided the estimated costs, key features of the technology and program, and the implementation timeline. With 80 LDCs in Ontario, that could have meant building and maintaining 80 data management systems for meter data. It also repackages that information into a common format with facilitates simpler analysis and downstream infrastructure related to billing and other enterprise systems. Working with distribution companies, the Privacy by Design principles were developed and incorporated into a guideline of best practices for smart grid companies to follow when designing their systems.

The Energy Conservation Leadership Act and later the Green Energy and Green Economy Act housed the smart meter initiative within broader plans to build an economy around clean energy and promote conservation. Home energy management systems have been piloted in several distribution territories to develop technologies and programs that encourage customer empowerment and result in load shifting.

The impact and of these programs and technologies have will be attributed in part to the smart meter initiative. At this stage it is too early to measure the overall progress on some of the project objectives, with many customers having been included in TOU for less than 1 year. Consumption data is being collected by the OEB for the whole province in order to evaluate the impact of this project once a significant period of time has passed.

In the absence of an aggregate study, some progress has been evaluated in territories that have implemented TOU over a longer period. For example the Newmarket distribution company commissioned a study by Navigant Consulting, published in , to determine if load shifting behaviours could be observed from their customers as a result of TOU pricing.

As part of maintaining a momentum and making the project implementation transparent and accountable, the OEB required the distribution companies to report every month on their progress of smart meter installation and TOU implementation. These reports were used to track the overall progress and were posted online. The government wanted to centralize the communication as much as possible to make it easier for distribution companies to communicate the changes to customers and to help set their expectations for future smart grid initiatives.

It created a TOU Rollout working group which developed various customer engagement materials including brochures, bus ads, posters, bill boards etc. All distribution companies were offered these templates for materials which they could brand, and print themselves. The smaller distribution companies, with smaller public engagement budgets, made the most use of these materials.

Others commissioned their own materials, and used other methods including hosting town halls, writing articles about it in local newspapers, and engaging customers at community events. Ontario was one of the earliest jurisdictions to deploy smart meters and in comparison to others in North America it has experienced relatively little opposition. As smart meters were deployed along with the implementation of TOU pricing, many customers saw smart meters as tied to TOU and not part of a greater smart grid value proposition.

In order to communicate the greater vision for smart grid in Ontario, programs for developing home energy management systems and demand management programs relate back to the smart metering infrastructure that they are building off of. These 3 objectives have helped government, politicians and distribution companies communicate to customers the benefit of smart grid.

This forum is an independent body, administered by the IESO, which draws together stakeholders from the government, regulator, distribution companies and corporate partners looking to develop new technologies and services for smart grid. In addition to the formal consultative processes, the regular meetings of the Smart Grid Forum have served as a valuable sounding board for government smart grid policy ideas. Working with smart grid stakeholders around the world, she helps industries to incorporate the PbD principles into smart grid planning, and to communicate the integrity of smart grid to customers.

Unanimously passed and adopted as an International Framework for protecting privacy at the International Conference of Privacy Commissioners in , PbD has become a best practice around the world. When customers were fist exposed to TOU pricing, the OEB originally set the TOU schedule so that the off-peak period began at 10pm based, on when the demand profile for electricity drops off significantly across the province.

The public reaction to this was negative, with many complaints of the impracticality of waiting to run laundry machines for example after 10pm. This regulation stipulated a minimum functionality for meters, including their ability to charge TOU rates.

To ensure that all investments in smart meters were prudent, the OEB ruled that if distribution companies wanted to invest above and beyond the minimum requirement, those additional functions would have to be defended with a business case that would demonstrate the added value for the customer. While this has proven a cost effective measure for customers, few distribution companies have chosen to invest in meters with additional technology capabilities that have emerged to serve future smart grid technologies such as home area networks.

This decision will continue to be evaluated into the future as more technologies and systems interact with the meters. However, each meter can be upgraded or outfitted with additional technologies so the question of future adaptability is not a technical concern. Distribution companies also had to be authorized by law before they could procure. This encouraged buying-groups to form that could take advantage of economies of scale.

Despite that, the service territories of the various distribution companies across the province ranged from dense urban centres to rural and remote communities. This dictated a variety of technical capabilities, where some distributors procured meters to operate on a mesh-network for urban areas, while others procured meters to operate on tower-based communication system. The analysis can lead to important insight with which to inform policy and provide feedback on the effects of current programs and regulation.

The data also provides a valuable resource for entrepreneurs to create innovative projects and services for customers. To enable this innovation, Ontario is conducting a Green Button pilot to determine best practices for granting customers and third parties safe access to customer data. Functional Specification for Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart grid policy is set provincially in Canada.

This has unlocked potentials for new business models and system innovations in the province. The directive also required that the regulator guide the development of mandatory Smart Grid Plans for distribution utilities, and that those plans be regionally coordinated. Ontario smart grid policy objectives are captured under the 3 focus areas: customer control, power system flexibility, and adaptive infrastructure.

These policies coupled with feed-in tariffs for renewable energy, aggressive conservation targets, as well as the Smart Grid Fund, have attracted entrepreneurs, businesses, utilities and venture capitalists to invest in Ontario. After 8 years the system has reached a mature state with approximately Up to now roughly The complete roll-out of approximately It is obvious that first savings could be obtained by the efficient process automation, but a precise estimate for this achievement will not be available until operation of the complete system over a reasonable period of time.

Customers who do not have an AMIS-meter still are required to read the meter for themselves once a year and provide the result via postcard or web portal. Currently customers benefit from the online portal which provides their daily consumption and recently load profiles as well.

Moreover requests arose to provide additional real-time data of energy consumption. Lesson 1 The introduction of smart metering resembles more a revolution than an evolution. This stems mostly from the fact that simple autarkic meters are replaced by a very complex complete system. Lesson 2 The processes for the grid system as well as processes for the customers had to be altered significantly which requires a strong commitment throughout the whole company.

Lesson 3 It is necessary to inform and involve customers about the new technology and its possibilities. Lesson 4 Privacy and IT security have to be considered from the very beginning and the resulting effort and expenses should not be underestimated.

Lesson 5 Smart metering provides a basic tool to achieve energy saving, however the realization is within the responsibility of the customers. Lesson 6 Due to the lack of established standards, smart metering contains a high risk for the security of the investments. This includes standards for e. Lesson 7 New technologies e. Moreover international trends, developments and standardizations will be observed to be capable to provide the best decisions for the further required developments.

The goal is to finish the complete roll-out until as required by the Austrian law. Smart meters are powerful three phase power analyzers at each costumer site and are used for investigating LV-grids and load characteristics as well as voltage measurement site in voltage control systems compensating the voltage rise caused by decentralized generation. Depending on results new technology will be derived from these demo projects and implemented to further LV-grids. The main drivers for utilities in Austria to implement Smart Grids is the European directive for the full rollout of smart metering until and the imminent requirement to integrate distributed power generation units into the existing infrastructure.

The Austrian Smart Meter Act envisages simple smart meters which record electricity consumption mainly for billing purposes. In a future perspective Smart Meter data might also be used for a variety of energy services and might also contribute to model low voltage networks more precisely and thus improve network planning and operation in distribution networks.

This has already been demonstrated in some field tests. The European targets have led to a surge of renewable energy and the future network must be able to manage its fluctuating generation behaviour and also to integrate infrastructure for electric vehicles and storage technologies.

These are important drivers for the further developments. The Austrian Technology and Innovation Policy is heading to investigate the future role for smart grids by developing and testing smart grids technologies and concepts, as they are seen as a key enabling infrastructure to achieve political goals in the direction of sustainability. In particular smart grids are expected to contribute to.

It suggests a coordinated and structured way to smart grids — from the description of the context and the necessary technological innovations to achieve a secure and sustainable electricity supply in Austria. The AMI case book includes six case studies providing qualitative insights into the potential costs and benefits of advanced metering infrastructure AMI , and the associated business cases for investment. Each case presented has its own unique set of characteristics and drivers, which is indicative of the diverse range of motivating drivers for smart grid and AMI globally.

It follows then that the specific costs, benefits and business cases vary from case to case. Those common best practices and insights are presented here. It should be noted that these six cases represent only a portion of global experience in considering and deploying AMI. Additional cases have been solicited or are under development that will enlarge global understanding of the role AMI can play as one possible component of smarter electricity networks worldwide.

All Rights Reserved. October 2, Background Due to the fast industrialization and economic development in Korea, energy-guzzling industries such as steel, shipbuilding, oil refining and chemistry came to form a majority of the Korean industrial structure, and the rapidly rising power demand from the industries has been met by increasing power supply facilities.

History KEPCO is the only power utility in Korea which can sell electricity to consumers, and it manages all watt-hour meters and installs and manages the watt-hour meters differently according to supply voltages. Areas Establishment plans Apt. Shopping Total Seoul 15, 15, Incheon 4, 5, 9, Gwangju 20, 20, Daejeon 19, 19, Chungnam 16, 16, Gyeongbuk 22, 5, 27, Jeju 5, 5, Ansan Namyangju 11, 11, Gangneung 10, 3, 13, Chung ju 4, 4, Naju 1, 1, Total , 13, , 2 The purpose of the project The major goal of the SG deployment project is to secure flexibility of the power system.

October 5, Market structure Electricity market is liberalized since The electrical grid belongs to the state. Utilities, distributed by geographical areas, are responsible for installing, operating and maintaining the grid, being smart metering deployment responsibility of them.

The regulated transmission and distribution activities are remunerated administratively. Number of retail customers SPAIN Smart Meter Deployment at domestic customer Spain has not conducted an economic assessment of long-term costs and benefits for an electricity smart metering roll-out. Decreasing energy price for customers by increasing competition in energy market and decreasing the cost of the electrical system Transparency in electricity billing for customers.

Remote control, hourly energy metering and option for hourly tariff selection. Regarding to benefits provided by Smart Meter technology deployment, two main interest groups are differenced: customers and the electrical system. Benefits for customers: Hourly consumption information close to real-time helps customers managing their consumption and identifying energy efficiency actions for reducing their consumption and saving money.

Customer can manage its consumption thanks to the information and services provided, as well as responding to incentives Accuracy and transparency of measurements and electricity bills. A set of services becomes available for the customer, in combination with other smart grid technologies, such as new tariffs, pricing incentives, management consumption systems, etc.

Benefits for the electrical system: The availability of hourly customer consumption makes possible to quantify the potential of demand side management and know the behaviour of the grid. Metering processes and distribution grids can be automatized and smart devices can be controlled in a remote way. As a result, the cost related to these activities decrease. However, the optimal automation level has to be analysed according to technical and economic terms.

Next Steps In the next years, the steps to be carried out in Spain are focused on achieve the full deployment of smart meter up to 15 kW by December Miller nrel. That notwithstanding, drivers common to each of their AMI deployments can be summarized as: Operational efficiency and reliability Customer satisfaction and engagement with more services The initial focus was primarily on achieving system functionality.

Complementary Technologies, Systems, and Processes Majority of Distribution Automation Systems installed, and will be fully operational summer Solar PV and energy storage for smart grids with inverter? Opt-out meters are digital meters with the radio modules removed Complementary Technologies, Systems, and Processes Tropos city-wide wireless mesh network?

Drivers Early drivers pre : safety, reliability and efficiency Current drivers: leveraging AMI for distributed generation and customer energy efficiency Current Status Fully implemented Green Button data platform High satisfaction: 0. Organizational Change Utilities have recognized that AMI deployment is not simply about installing new technologies. System Integration On paper the fully integrated system design elegant.

Future Steps Looking ahead to emerging technologies enabled by AMI, California utilities are participating in some exciting initiatives. Market structure Electricity market is deregulated for supply and production of electricity. The Network Companies operate the distribution network on a monopoly market. Network Companies are responsible for installing, reading and maintaining them.

In most cases they own the meters. Number of retail customers 5. Project Cost: 1. Nation-wide benefits are still TBD. The Role of the Regulator As with many jurisdictions, a critical factor for the Swedish roll-out of smart meters was the allowance for network companies to include smart meters as part of the asset base to ensure cost coverage.

The Business Case for AMI The capability for remote upgrades of the meter software is critical to the overall functionality of the AMI system, and to the value proposition for the customer. Communications Operability A common problem with the roll-out reported by many network companies was the difficulty in getting the communication with the meters to function properly.

Some major examples include: Detection of zero ground faults. The AMI can detect a loss of ground connection, and resulting higher voltages in the network, which increases safety for customers and personnel. Reduced customer complaints. Sites without electricity contracts, such as empty apartments or overdue accounts, can be disconnected efficiently to minimize risk and customer costs. Power outage compensation. Customers no longer need to call in to report an outage, meter data also ensures that customers are compensated correctly.

Low Voltage LV network quality monitoring. Quality monitoring ensures that customer power quality aligns with the regulation. This increased customer service commitment relies heavily on accurate network documentation. Next Steps — The Proactive Forum Swedenergy, the power industry and special interest organisation for companies involved in the supply of electricity in Sweden, has worked out recommendations for requirements on AMI.

Market structure: Liberalised market structure: network operators and energy retailers unbundled. Energy production, trading and retailing have become commercial activities. Smart meters are owned, installed and maintained by the public distribution system operators Number of retail customers Appr 7. Effects of additional information stimuli On the other hand, a suite of additional smart metering services trials is programmed to investigate the behavioural and potential measurable reduction effects in customer electricity and gas demand achievable through the use of smart meters in combination with other free market energy monitoring and managements systems.

Following consultations in the market sector, the Ministry of Economic Affairs proposed the following meter market changes: All small users will be given a smart meter; The grid operators will be responsible for rollout. The grid operators will own and maintain the smart meter and be responsible for a total distribution; The meters will become part of the regulated domain of the grid operator, being considered as part of the physical infrastructure; The cost of the hardware meter hire will be regulated; The energy retailers will be responsible for all customer-related processes and metering data management; The smart meters must comply with the basic functionality and technology mentioned in the smart meter industry standard NTA and technical requirements according to the Dutch Smart Metering System Requirements DSMR set by the Dutch association of network operators.

Revised plan voluntary roll out of smart meters In , after intense political debate, the Dutch Senate declined to approve a mandated rollout of smart meters because of privacy and security concerns raised by the national association of consumers Consumentenbond. In the revised proposal the consumer has the following legal options when offered a smart meter: The option to refuse the installation of a smart meter and keep the traditional meter; The option to have a smart meter fitted or once it has been installed , but opt out of sending meter readings automatically so smart meter functions as a traditional meter, a meter reader is still required ; The option to have a smart meter fitted, with standard meter reading frequencies of which the most important are: final billing in case of switching energy supplier or moving house, once a year for annual billing and bimonthly meter readings for additional energy advice in cost and consumption overviews.

The option to have a smart meter fitted, with full automatic and wireless smart meter reading. Only if express and unequivocal permission has been obtained from the consumer, more detailed reading can be done. In the analysis detailed reading was still the standard situation.

The consumer will have the option of refusing the smart meter. This means that the consumer in question will keep his or her traditional meter. In the case of new construction and renovations of houses and small buildings it is compulsory to install a smart meter, and there is no obligation to replace it with a traditional meter at the request of the consumer.

Next Steps The next big step will be the start of a large scale role out of smart grids, as the pilot projects are reaching their final phase in and international lessons are being learned. KEPCO owns, installs and maintains all meters. Number of retail customers 50 million Electricity consumed Figure 7 : AMI Deployment Plan The project objectives and benefits are: Objectives Establishment of new market for two-way power trades with various resources in the demand side facilitating negative generation: demand response Smart Grid ICT Infrastructure for bidirectional information exchange based on Power IT technology.

This technology is expected to facilitate electricity market trading and create new value added services Development of smart systems and smart appliances to enable customers with demand response and automatic controls responding to time-variant or real-time tariffs Benefits Improvements in power quality, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of the system operation from AMI and related technologies The reduction of greenhouse gas emission and the stimulation of green energy use The development of value-added services such as demand side management by optimizing power consumption patterns Cost savings through load shifting to cheaper hours with economic incentives AMI in the Jeju Smart Grid Demonstration Project The Jeju Smart Grid Demonstration was established in Gujwa-eup, in the northeastern region of Jeju Island, in December Figure 8 : Five technology areas of Jeju smart grid demonstration project Advanced Metering Infrastructure AMI is included in the Smart Place technology area, with four consortiums participating as shown in Table 2.

This should provide the energy management services such as load management and load shift in households, buildings and factories. The AMI deployment has been planned in the National Smart Grid Roadmap as follows: In Promoting AMI supply after consultation with the corresponding operators for apartments and Area Electrical Business areas, etc In Preferential supply of AMI system in the pilot city Development and supply of an energy integrated metering system that can uniformly read the usage information of electricity, tap water, gas, heat, etc.

Export Strategy Business models for overseas expansion will need to accommodate common AMI architecture and adhere to global standards. Market structure Liberalized demand market; all customers may choose their supplier. The remaining is served by the universal supply regime. DSOs are responsible for metering activities Number of retail customers Approx.

The concentrator supports four main applications: Aggregation of data from the meters and subsequent transfer to the AMM Control Centre at regular intervals or as required for specific AMM requests- Performing remote operations on meters upon AMM request e.

Deactivation, Tariffs or contractual changes Alarm signal detection for communication problems, meter tampering, metering failure, and communication of these signals to the AMM Control Centre Remote firmware download for electronic meter and LV-C software upgrade The central system for remote management of meters, processing of billing information as well as quality of service monitoring Telecommunication network power line carrier PLC between the meter and the concentrator, mobile communication between the concentrator and the central systems.

Figure 5: Cost per customer and quality of service improvements In more than million remote readings and more than 9 million remote operations had been performed. This is the result of several factors: Replacement of worn-out meters, which no longer worked correctly and measured a lower than actual consumption Correction of database records i. Market Impact The Enel Smart meter technology has become a de facto standard in Italy: 4 million of smart meters have been sold to other distribution system operators in Italy and additionally over 1 million smart meters to other European utilities.

Cyber Security Within the Telegestore system the data protection is performed not only by hardware mode inside meters and concentrators but also by means of a dedicated set of software features. Next Steps The design and development of a second generation of smart meters to replace the current smart meters at their end of life expected lifetime 15 years is underway. Market structure Transmission and 1 Distribution company-both regulated. All island single energy market, retail fully deregulated.

Number of retail customers 2. IRELAND Smart Meter Pilot — Customer Behaviour Trial In , over 6, smart meters were deployed in homes and businesses throughout Ireland as part of a national pilot to determine the most cost beneficial and effective way of achieving a full scale national smart metering rollout.

Use Case description Profile of Participants A key requirement of the trial was that the outcome would be statistically robust and representative of the national population. Customer research During the trial, a number of focus groups were conducted to explore different aspects of the trial design with relevant consumer groups. Design and description of Stimuli Four different sets of tariffs each with day, night and peak rates and 4 associated stimuli monthly and bi-monthly detailed bills, in-home displays and an overall load reduction reward were designed for use in the residential trial.

Figure 2: Customer fridge magnet explaining Time-of-Use time bands During the Trial all participants in the stimulus test groups received a bill, combined with an energy usage statement. Project Details Overall Reduction: 2. DSOs are responsible for metering activities. Below you will find some key figures: Electricity consumed : TWh.

Power Peak Demand : 92, MW. Current net result : MEUR? This project, led in conjunction with the French Energy Regulation Commission CRE , aims at answering the changing needs of various players on the electricity market: to modernise metering infrastructures to face technological and societal evolutions development of renewables and electrical vehicles, new uses of energy, etc. The concentrator polls the meters, processes and stores the received data and transmits it to the central Information System.

Linky communicates with the concentrator via the local communication network. It exploits the Power Line Carrier technology PLC , using the low-voltage electric network to exchange data and orders between meters and concentrators. The extended communication network allows concentrators to communicate with the central Information System. This network uses telecommunication network e. The three main characteristics of Linky system are: Bi-directional communication to and from the meter ; Scalability: each component can be separately upgraded; Interoperable and exchangeable equipments, and standardized protocols of communication Figure 4.

Linky System architecture ERDF designed the overall system, setting out specifications for the meters and data concentrators and leaving the manufacturing of the equipments to subcontractors, selected by European calls for tender. Benefits The modernisation of electricity meters is a legal obligation imposed by the European Commission.

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