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The keyboard is equally amazing. Video game keyboards are even available. In a way, Resolution Studies encompasses glitch and glitch art, offering a more zoomed out perspective. The works I present in this publication are produced exemplary of the artifacts that appear when experimenting with the affordances of certain resolutions. What finally sits in front of you, Beyond Resolution, is an independently developed and published work - a collection of different types of texts ranging from short stories to basic optics and a manifesto like text, accompanied by a collection of artworks that I developed during the time of writing, presented in an a- chronological order.

The organisation of this publication could be considered modular; the chapters can be read independently. However I did choose to order them the way they are for a reason: to present a consistently additive flow.

Whiteout is an account of a visceral experience: it describes the journey of climbing a mountain in a snowstorm; of being engulfed by input, yet not being able to render anything. Whiteout is followed by Behind White Shadows, a chapter written after the recurring loss of authorship over my own face. In the age of hyper visibility, the face is still an often overlooked battleground. Contiguous to this, within the field of image processing, the image of the Caucasian female face has systematically been used or stolen for the production of color test cards, resulting into biased industry norms for color calibration and ultimately racist technologies — a fact that became a turning point into my own understanding and usage of my face within resolution studies.

Finally, the fifth chapter of Beyond Resolution, institutions of Resolution Disputes [i. In conclusion, I would like to state, that after releasing Beyond Resolution, the i. It is grey. Snow in the form of fine dust is coming down. Soon most of the trees give way, the path is now completely covered in a thick and fresh pack of snow —— footsteps and the occasional boulder mark its surface.

We use GPS for navigation and also carry a small hand-held device called Limenia, that picks up particular bands of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum, which it translates into humanly audible sounds. All over the world we have elongated nature's highest terrains with antennas, without respect for the natural stratifications they are built upon, or consideration of the panoramas interrupted.

These antennas usually function as repeaters: they receive, retransmit and propagate invisible electromagnetic waves of information through the ether, as well as the natural environment. Notably, the antenna on top of this particular mountain is a remnant of the Cold War. As such, it is not only anchored in our current telecommunication networks, but in a previous —— and quite possibly ongoing —— position as an ear that listens in on confidential networks of telecommunication.

While we move along the trail, the atmosphere becomes denser and the wind picks up. As spatial orientation withers and our perception of the distance is curtailed to 50 meters, a visual gradient fills my viewing plane, oscillating between grey whites and white greys. The weather is not right for the phenomenon and the wind in my face brings me back to our climb. A hut offers shelter for two walkers who seem to be taking a rest.

We pass them without much of a greeting as it is hard to speak. A fork in the path leads us to the right. Introduced to a barrier of fog, a roaring wind in our ears and frictious bed of snow under our feet, we find ourselves reduced to an ever slower pace. Limenia has now become the only proof of life beyond this grey enclosure. It is comforting to hear its sounds in my ears as it pings invisible infrastructures: concretizing and assigning dimensions to a space my eyes cannot see.

It would clearly capture the environment introduced by the antenna: the beacon on the top of this mountain that relentlessly emits signals into the invisible-to-me realms of the radio frequency spectrum. How much of the landscape —— hidden to me through these layers of snow and fog —— exists to organisms or networks that have passive electronic properties, besides my Limenia? Do my human qualities simply render me incapable of understanding the violence of these intangible signals?

In short, to really read this place I would need a way to capture and transcode a vertically thickened geography: a strategy of counter-mapping that adds layers, stacks and other vertical elements to my imaging of this space.

I wish I could create a territorial hologram of this trail, by mounting different types of antennas or other sensing technologies onto my eye sockets. I wish I could conjure a thick mesh of the sceneographies I am traversing.

I wish I could visually compute the world around me. For some time, thoughts and references like these float and sink in the rhythms of the beating wind. After some hours, we pass a signpost that signals another five kilometers awaits us. As we cross a barrier of snow the fog suddenly vanishes and in its place encroaches an enveloping white noise. Like a spacecraft going into warp drive, the wind shoots the snow- noise in our faces and eyes.

I think about the different forms and shapes these tiny crystals must have and how they owe their forms to their previous environments; all this only to finally end up as a drop on my cheek —— another impossible image, that makes me feel small. The path, contoured by the light, is now twisting, crossing, intersecting, connecting, bending and elongating. Having rented an SUV in the hopes of gaining some horsepower I found myself disappointed with what the machine offered, but at the same time nonetheless excited to traverse this vast desert expanse.

I drove for days—— with gallons of water and spare batteries for my mobile device —— without a route, aimlessly following the heat aberrations and dust devils into the unforeseen. On one such drive I took a route marked with a thick line on Google Maps yet found myself on a dusty stretch of road that became narrower and narrower as I progressed —— suddenly I was left without space to turn around.

I was trapped on a path that slowly changed from dust to stones and then to rocks: big rocks, sometimes larger than my suspension should bear. I spent hours on that path, scared to puncture a tire. The more I progressed, the more I feared breaking down in a location more desolate than those passed in the preceding hours. Singing to myself while probably driving slower than I would move by foot, I finally reached the end of that rocky road.

I still remember the extreme relief of entering a clean stretch of asphalt, looking over a barren valley marked by the sediments of a dried lake. The valley was carved in two by the straight line of interstate 15, which stretched into the horizon. Peering into the expanse before me, I saw something surprising: a pillar of light peeking over the rim of a mountain, a strange daylight lantern, shining with an intensity that puzzled me.

Forty-five minutes later, I had crossed the distance that separated me from the daylight lantern. As I pulled up on the private road of a centralized solar farm, I swung my door open and hurried toward the edge of the field to experience its energy, half expecting to be told to move on by some security guard. Yet, it remained quiet. Endlessly quiet. There, in front of the whitest light I had ever seen, I was alone —— there was nothing else: no wind, no cars, not even a hum to signal the concentration of energy right in front of me.

It was just me and the whitest light in the middle of the High Mojave Desert. I had never seen such white. I closed my eyes and suddenly I lost my references to the light. It might as well have been vantablack. Whiteout Two Channel Video, 15 minutes M aking Space and Place I pull myself back onto the mountain where it is cold and definitely not that type of white.

The weather escalated from a gentle snowfall into a storm. Vague reflections of trees and objects lost in swirling grey tones pixelate my sense of the horizon: a line that otherwise could have been a guiding beacon. In the Dictionary of the English Language , Samuel Johnson observed seventeen definitions of the line.

He differentiated between its function as a longitudinal extension, a string, a contour, a letter and a family line. The line is not a singular thing Point and Line to Plane. US: Dover Publications, p. Lines can offer myriad shapes and directions: horizontal, vertical, diagonal, rastrum, grid or wave; a maze, a mesh, a labyrinth.

The snow usurps not only one but all possible lines. In front of me could be anything, but all remains resolutely unresolved. Like any map, every map of this mountain is made out of lines. During this time, the Brocken was no more than an imagined space to civilians. Today, the region is open and its lines and borders construct a visual record: one of experience and history inscribed in layers of linear re imaginings that signify mapping rather than simply a map.

Weizman states that maps exist to make it easier to navigate the world. They inform with insights and overview, yet, generally, they bear no witness to their creator s. Rather, the map appears as a pre-composed artifact: an object derived from a space rather than a reading that is imposed on a space, which transforms it into a place —— much like photographic inscriptions of experience that transform space to place.

But, like photographs, maps are highly political objects. They define space and impose particular readings. But these maps are two-dimensional. Attempting to represent reality on two-dimensional surfaces, they not only mirror but also shape the thing they represent. As much as describing the world, they create it. This type of one-dimensional scaling is violent and undermines the meshes that transform space into a specific place. The spaces represented on maps are those without inhabitants: no one is present, nothing moves or makes a sound.

In the map of the Brocken, we are merely blue dots scaling a two-dimensional Eustachian tube; presented with minimal 9The Eustachian tube is part of the middle ear. Also known as the auditory tube, it connects the nasopharynx to the middle ear. He speculated about the possibility of four-dimensional matter, which could help us to remember the future. Having access to such matter, we could carve slices of time —— including the future —— which would then help us navigate the present. A more inclusive description of the Brocken might mean the formation of a multi-dimensional volume, layered with folkloric, historical and political strata.

But on the mountain, there are just endless snowflakes, in which I can see stories and adventures from my future and my past… But it feels like I can carve nothing. The twirls around me are not uniformly defined. The thoughts in my head are spinning as if they are dancing to the movements of the flakes. The white noise is no longer coming down from the sky but instead from all directions —— up, down, left and right —— without a focus, a line or a path.

They have become the length and depth of my hike. All I see is grey. In this intense flattening of perspective, we have become the distance. We are forms, lines, energies; one upon another, the matter of an intangible —— though far from immaterial —— situation. Walking here together, the trail has taken us deeper inside ourselves. A terrible feeling of dread and loneliness comes over me. I remember this grey feeling. It is being together with people, yet still being alone.

Sometimes a space is made of invisible rules and viscosities that keep you from inhabiting it. Although, these material properties of space may just be qualities I am not trained in. I have to learn to understand space through properties beyond my senses, my literacy and my habits. Blurred is this blizzard: a blizzard of snow and a blizzard of thoughts. I do not see the knots or threads. I feel less and less human. I am just a cold body stuck inside a sack of clothes that is trying to carry itself up a mountain.

We have walked for a long time. I am exhausted. The twirls of white noise make space for a flurry of references and images that take up the space beyond my retina. Shadows and shapes appear in the corner of my eyes, apparitions that disappear when I try to see them. The ghosts are dancing in a fog of flakes as my hair is dancing with them, reaching out like tentacles in front of my eyes. I take Limenia out again: the little instrument gives me static and a hint of something else.

For a moment it sounds like music. Maybe I mishear a deep EVP electronic voice phenomenon , or the ghosts of the weather have now started to speak through the device. Then, suddenly there is a little clearing in the sky and I can see a shimmer of light. It is like the sun wants to tell me it is still there. I have been pulled out of my grey state of being, on a mission to make it to the top of this track.

On the side of the road I see spectacular installations: collaborations 11 Leslie, Esther. Walter Benjamin. UK: Reaktion Books, Critical lives series, p. Gesammelte Schriften, vol. VII, pt. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, Lines: A Brief History.

London: Routledge, The final stretch of the track is suddenly there, it is not too long before we reach the end of the trail and arrive at the summit of the mountain. Cold, stiff and tired, there are only a few trees to keep us protected from the wind. There, in the snow, it is sending and repeating inaudible messages, encrypted on different frequencies, waiting for technology to pick them up for repetition or translation to another medium or node. It is not enough to regard the surface as a taken-for-granted backdrop for the lines that are inscribed upon it.

The history of writing belongs within the history of notation, and the history of notation within the history of the line, so there can be no history of the line that is not also about the changing relations between lines and surfaces.

The story of a time when I manoeuvred through slices of consciousness; traversed a virtual axis to nowhere and, finally, was pulled back into space, only for such space to collapse on me. The Brocken Spectre never appeared to us, but for a moment, the Brocken morphed into a landscape with multiple horizons, in which the orientation discerning top from bottom did not exist except outside the mind of the wanderer.

And even though events seemed to happen in the same space, this state created different places within that space, layered upon one another. As I scaled that mountain in the snowstorm, the mountain sublimated itself into a space without lines. For a moment there were no threads, traces or cracks to fall into; lines to follow, grasp or get a hold of. The mountain showed me I need lines to understand space. In a perfect whiteout, I missed visual markers and, as a result, all lines of reference.

I became my own surface. And all I had to inscribe with meaning was my own internalization of space: a quantum axis I got lost in. A node needs lines and connections, it needs links. And although these are ubiquitous —— and therefore often ignored —— they actually provide an important rationale for grounding: they organize images, vision and context. The line is a beautiful and radical object in its capacity to represent both operation and representation.

Some lines even defy classification. When dealing with materials that are non-static, opaque or invisible, we can shape their so-perceived immateriality or conjure them into materiality through approaching them as an axis. Lines can be the basis of all materiality because they invoke a surface. They form our matter. If a visitor temporarily commits to a line, they re-territorialize the environment.

It is this kind of thinking about space and place that allows for seeing through time; through different spectra and frequencies to open different or new perspectives of visual, experiential and spatial narratives. Maybe, to a mountain, all that matters is verticality, quantified as height above sea-level.

That is why mountains are generally defined by their summits and not by greatness of rock mass or the degree of muscular exertion the hiker has to endure when scaling. Every time this occurs, the mountain is freed again and again because the act of repositioning these membranes of perspectives create a forever unfolding, non-vertical abyss of lines.

Our immaterial objects are shaped by the vectors we choose, the lines we draw around them, the norms and expectations, traditions and rules; and, finally, the lines of meaning we inscribe them with. It not only matters what surface a line is drawn on, but also what lines we draw upon a surface. Finally, the scale at which we draw lines, or the spectrum through which we radiate is of note.

And when doing that, we may even be able to jump scales. The Life of Lines. London: Routeledge, p. It can be legible or illegible, present or absent, perfect or imperfect. But it is never empty or devoid of meaning. In the first part of her talk, Steyerl focuses on the use of 3D scanning in forensic crime-scene investigations. In this process, each point in space is measured and finally compiled into a 3D facsimile point cloud. In turn, Steyerl observes that this kind of capturing does not just provide a new image of reality but transforms our very relation to the world.

Yet, Steyerl takes issue with the general belief that these emergent technologies should be accepted as the ultimate documentary and forensic devices: as tools that produces percent reliable, true, evidence. For instance, only a few scanning rigs are advanced enough to capture a moving object: they generally become a blur or are not picked up at all. As a result, the final scan of an object, or space, includes blind spots: the backs of the objects and the shadows cast by objects in front of an object which, depending on the display technology, may show up as empty white shells.

To really process an environment properly, its scans would have to be taken from every angle. The barrier 16 Gibbs, Michael. Uniformbooks, p. The space that is missing, missing data, the space where an object covers the view. A shadow. The missing people themselves. An important question, then, not just for 3D, but for any technology is: who decides the point of view and who stands behind the perspective from which a LiDAR —— or any scanning or imaging technology —— is operated?

In order to formulate a possible entry point for tackling this problematic, in what follows you will find a history of resolutions, specifically the history of the color test card. This standard test image is an image file used across different institutions to evaluate: image processing, compression algorithms, rendering and display quality.

One type, the test pattern or resolution target, is typically used to test the rendering of a technology or to measure the resolution of an imaging system. Such a pattern often consists of reference line patterns with clear, well-defined thicknesses and spacings. By identifying the largest set of indistinguishable lines, one determines the resolving power of a given system; by using identical standard test images, different labs are able to compare results —— both visually, qualitatively and quantitatively.

While technologies such as photography, television, film and software all have their own color test images, these types of test images all typically involve a referencing norm that depicts a Caucasian woman wearing a colorful, high-contrast dress. Even though there were many different Shirleys in analogue photography or China Girls in color film chemistry that modeled for these test cards, they were never selected to facilitate variation.

Although the identities of the many Shirleys who modeled for these norms have stayed unknown, they have nonetheless formed a collective public identity, which is often used as a standard on color test cards. In his book White, British film studies professor Richard Dyer observed the following: In the history of photography and film, getting the right image meant finding the image that conformed to prevalent ideals of humanity.

This included ideals of whiteness, of what color —— what range of hue —— white people wanted white people to be. I would also like to extend my gratitude to Bogomir Doringer for inviting me to present my story and research as part of his Faceless panel during Resonate Belgrade, Serbia and publish in his book of the same title. And last, but not least, to Ward Jansen who has been a driving force behind the joint acquisition of a Vernacular of File Formats by the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam and Moti in , which initiated my thinking on topics covered in this paper.

This text also accompanied my solo show of the same name, at Transfer Gallery, New York in White: Essays on Race and Culture. UK: Routledge, VeriColor III, a professional portrait film developed in the early 80s by Richard Wien and his team at Kodak Park, became known for its more flexible accommodation of a range of skin colours. Lorna Roth, Looking at Shirley: The de-facto ideal standard that has been in play since the early part of the twentieth century for most analogue photo labs has thus been positively biased toward white skin tones, which naturally have a high level of reflectivity.

As a result it was not only difficult to capture darker and blacker skin tones, but it also proved impossible to capture two highly contrasting skin tones within the same shot: when trying to capture a black person sitting next to a white person, the African American facial image would often lose details and pose lighting challenges. In consequence, film material generally came to depict ashen-looking facial skin colors that contrasted harshly with the whites of eyes and teeth.

The Caucasian test card is thus not about variation, but about setting a racist standard, which has been dogmatically implemented for more than 40 years. The willful disregard by film companies, such as Kodacolor and Kodachrome , is reasoned in terms of the markets centering of white consumers. Roth notes how Kodak executive Richard Wien described this development in terms of ability of the companies film to capture the details of a dark horse in low light.

Moreover, the concept of dynamic range is complex and depends on whether one is calculating a capturing device such as a camera or scanner , a display device such as a print or computer display , or the subject itself. This is why around the same time that these changes in sensitivity of film emulsion took place, the color test card was also revisited, albeit only slightly.

First, in the mids, Japanese photography companies redesigned their Shirley cards using their own stock images from their own color preference tests. Since, the local reference card featured Japanese women with light yellow skin. Roth, Lorna. And the midtones lost their scale? Are your shadows going smokey? And the colors turning stale? Have you lost a little business to labs whose pictures shine? Because to do it right —— takes a lot of time. During the decades of color-timing, hundreds of female faces or China Girls which some have described as a reference to the porcelain mannequins used in early screen tests appeared in the film leaders, typically only for one to four frames, never intended to be seen by anyone other than the projectionist.

The color-timing practice was not completely reliable as it involved a different China Girl and slightly different lighting arrangement each time. Along with color-timing, the anonymous China Girls, whose occupations ranged from studio workers to models, became artifacts of an obsolete film history. By filming two foot rolls of film, all film supplied since the introduction of LAD is made from the same original negative, either as a duplicate negative or now as a digital intermediate.

Their images exist on the fringes of film. They were abused and damaged. We wanted to give them their due. You know what a black-and-white test pattern is? The only difference being that in television, the objectified test model, was known by her real name.

Gross, Benjamin. If an actor with a different skin color entered the scene, the calibration process was supplemented with special lighting or makeup techniques to ensure that the non-white participants looked good on screen —— a task that is not always easy and deferred the development and implementation of adequate, non-biased technologies. Such conditions led Lorna Roth to conclude, in her seminal article, that the habitual racism embedded within color reference cards did more than just influence major standard settings: the tone of hue, chroma, contrast, quantization, and lightness luminance values.

To her, it is also responsible for the highly deficient renderings of non-Caucasian skin tones, which have resulted in an ongoing need for compensatory practices. This one size fits all is problematic, as a technician once explained to Roth: physics is physics approach has become the standard, in reality, the various complexions reflect light differently. What this reveals is a composite interplay between the different settings involved when capturing the subject.

Despite the obvious need to factor in these different requirements for different hues and complexions, television technically only implemented support for one — the Caucasian complexion. As a result, even contemporary standards are often rooted within these racist, habitual practices.

New digital technologies still feature embedded racial biases. Consumer reports later attributed both problems to low-level lighting, again moving the conversation away from important questions about skin tone to the determination of a proper lighting level —— discussions continue to echo naive physics justifications. Ahmed recollects 33Gross, Benjamin. The results that we got appeared too good to be true, and I therefore decided to consult Harry Andrews later that year at a conference in New Orleans.

In a newsletter, Jamie Hutchinson offers an insightful reflection on how the testing of DCT again focused on the implementation of a Caucasian female color test card. Hutchinson quotes Alexander Sawchuk, who reminisces on his efforts to implement the test card during his time as assistant professor of electrical engineering.

Just then, somebody happened to walk in with a recent issue of Playboy. After the tricky processing stage was finished, Sawchuk realized that they had lost a line while scanning. Moreover, the timing of the analogue-to-digital converters was off, making the final test image slightly more elongated than the original.

Those three sets of lines —— one set for each color, created imperfectly —— would become the de facto industry standard. It is a good test image! Second, the Lena image is a picture of an attractive woman. It is not surprising that the mostly male image processing research community gravitated toward an image that they found attractive. I am sympathetic to their argument, which states that we should not use material from any publication that is seen by some as being degrading to women.

While Lena was regularly found on the pages of image processing journals, books and conference papers, Playboy finally became aware of the transgressions after the Journal of Optical Engineering featured Lena on its July cover. It is digitized and its common use permits comparison of different image processing techniques and algorithms coming out of different research laboratories. SPIE eventually reached an agreement with Playboy, disclosing a warning in their January editorial 39 The Lena image was actually not the first Playboy image used as testcard for image calibration.

The first Playboy magazine centerfold known to be utilized to illustrate image processing algorithms dates back to , when Lawrence G. Roberts used two cropped 6-bit grayscale scanned images from Playboy's July issue featuring Playmate Teddi Smith , for his MIT master's thesis on image dithering.

According to publications director at SPIE Eric Pepper, it was almost as if Lena had entered the public domain by that time —— almost, but not quite. As a result, Seideman hoped that the image of Lena would remain a standard reference image for compression technologies throughout the twenty-first century. Even today, the standard Lena test image is downloadable from several laboratory sites. Rather than ban Lena, Munson wrote an editorial in which he encouraged authors to use other images.

Acton 42Brown, Janelle. How much are the performance, texture and materiality of digital photography actually influenced by the use of the image of Caucasian Lena? Jennifer in Paradise, Did John ask you if he could use the image? Did you enjoy seeing yourself on the screen as much as he did?

Did you think you would be the muse that would inspire so much contemporary image making? Would you be willing to share it with me, and so, the other people for whom it took on such an unexpected significance? It was sad to realize this blurry screen grab was the closest I could get to the image, but beautiful at the same time. How often do you find an important image that is not online in several different sizes already? Silver sand, blue water, a green island in the distance.

This photo, taken in by one of the two creators of Photoshop, John Knoll, became the standard test image for the development and implementation of Photoshop and its suite of creative effects. Twirling, deleting and copying Jennifer were just some of the myriad processes tested on the image. It is also one of the reasons why the image did not disappear when Photoshop moved out of its development phase.

When Photoshop was finally ready for public use, John and his brother Thomas used the image again and again in online demos. It was a good image to do demos with, John Knoll recalls, as it was pleasing to look at and there were a whole bunch of things you could do with that image technically. In an open letter accompanying the show, Dullaart describes the image of Jennifer as an important artifact in the history of software development and as an anecdote in Adobe history.

He asks Jennifer to share the original image file with the world. In a way, just like the Lena image, Jennifer has become a phenomenon. While Dullaart never obtained any rights or permissions for the use of the Jennifer image, he did digitally reconstruct the original image, creating an image series consisting of Photshopped versions, materialized as wallpaper, and a series of prints featuring enthusiastically filtered Jennifers twirled, blurred, etc.

Dullaart also spread the digitally reconstructed version of the original image with an added payload: steganographically adding messages to the reconstructed JPEG image file. In doing so, he intended to treat the JPEG image not just as an image, but as a unique container format for content.

This, he hoped, would open a debate on the value of the digital file format. The reconstructed Jennifer JPEG is not just a format that carries the reconstructed image information. Via the steganographic technique it has become a unique container and placeholder for discussing the materiality of digital photography.

In terms of monetization of the material, Dullaart only sells the password to the encrypted payload added to the reconstructed version of the original JPEG —— the access to his secrete message. Finally, in an effort to translate the work for the context of the gallery, Dullaart organized a performance in which he briefly showed his secret message written in phosphorescent paint on top of the wallpaper by shining a blacklight on its surface, followed by a destruction of the blacklight as a metaphor for encryption and inaccessibility.

Dullaart never received a direct response from Jennifer or John Knoll to his request to enter the original image into the public domain or to gift it to a media archeological institution such as the Smithsonian. Albeit indirectly, Dullaart had now fulfilled one of the main goals of his solo show.

Pique Nique pour les Inconnues considers the ways in which the history of technology has been defined by standardization, in particular through the use of color test cards for image processing. The work presents les Inconnues - unknown women whose images are linked to the history of image processing.

In this work, test cards, bots, virtual assistants, stock photos and others find a voice, but fail to recover their personhood. Engineers used these female objects to evaluate the quality of image processing, rendering and composition of architecture and to make these latent spaces more amicable. While these women seem to be able to prolong their existence for as long as the digital realms will copy and reuse them, most of them have lost their name and identity.

In this work, the viewer is haunted by the familiarity of these digital ghosts, while at the same time, privy to an uncanny experience when the historically mute images speak for the first time. Engineers use these images to evaluate the quality of image processing, the rendering and composition of the architecture of a digital space, but also simply to make latent spaces more amicable.

However, just like the canned laughter tracks of televisions shows, that are made by real people who were immortalized when they lend their laughs in the 30s or 40s, these women too seem to have prolonged their exitence for as long as the digital realms will copy and reuse them. They have become a "shell without a ghost". She featured in various artists works ranging from books to theatre and film. But while many artists felt inspired by her borrowed visage, little but her moniker is known about her and she remains forever an asset with missing values.

Munson was the inspiration for more than 12 other statures in New York City, and many, many others elsewhere. Chances are that when you cross a statue, it might be modelled after her. The images in this show were meant only for use by the processing lab to match color tones in the associated film.

They were often film lab workers themselves. Roberts used two different, cropped 6-bit grayscale scanned images from Playboy's July issue, featuring Playmate Teddi Smith, in his MIT master's thesis on image dithering. A Vernacular of File Formats, She wished to mask her flaws, to be perfect. But only a short time into the shoot, the illusion shattered and she found herself forced to visit the emergency room.

An allergic reaction to the makeup hurt her eyes violently and left her sight affected for days. B ehind the Angel of History Seven years after shooting the source footage for A Vernacular of File Formats: An Edit Guide for Compression Design , it has become strange to think and refer to the image that I shot that day as a self-portrait: that image being my image.

When I shot it, it was a symbol of my own imperfect being. I tried to be perfect like porcelain, at least from the outside, but my body broke out and reminded me that there is no such thing as perfection. Not even in make believe video.

As time passed, the relationship between me and that image fundamentally changed because of other more complex and unexpected reasons. A Vernacular of File Formats A file format is an encoding system that organizes data according to a particular syntax or compression algorithm. The choice of a particular image compression algorithm is based on its foreseen mode and place of usage; therefore prompting questions such as: how much accuracy is necessary for a particular task?

What hard or software will process the image? What data is important and what can be discarded? An image file format answers to certain affordances. As Adrian Mackenzie wrote in Software such as codecs possess several analytical problems. Firstly, they are monstrously complicated.

Methodologically speaking, coming to grips with them as technical processes may entail long excursions into labyrinths of mathematical formalism and machine architecture, and then finding ways of backing out of them bringing the most relevant features. Although standards are often set in a way that avoids or hides all traces of testing and standardization regimes, traces can re surface in the form of flaws, inherited dogmas, or obsolete artifacts. Every compression algorithm comes with its own set of rules and compromises, which, even though often invisible, influence our media on a fundamental, meaningful, and often compromising level.

In A Vernacular of File Formats, I explore and uncover these otherwise hidden protocols and standards. Through a series of corrupted self-portraits, I illustrate the language of compression algorithms. A Vernacular of File Formats consists of one source image, the original portrait, and an arrangement of recompressed and disturbed iterations. By compressing the source image using different compression languages and subsequently implementing the same or similar error into each file, the normally invisible compression language presents itself on the surface of the image.

Besides every iteration of the image I also try to give an explanation of how I disrupted the image and the basic affordances of the compression responsible for its aesthetic outcome. In doing so, A Vernacular of File Formats was not only a start for my ongoing research into the politics of file formats and their inherent resolutions, but is also a 51 Gibson, James J. The ecological approach to visual perception: classic edition. Psychology Press, Software studies: A lexicon.

Mit Press, p. After releasing A Vernacular of File Formats, these images initially circulated quite naturally, following the random flow of the Internet. Some of them were republished with consent or attribution, others were badly copied without attribution. It became clear that particular iterations of the self-portrait had quite a bit more traction than others; these got frequent requests and pulls and were featured on the covers of books, magazines and online music releases.

One of the images became a mascot for a festival in Valencia, included in a poster campaign throughout the city. It was only some years after the release of A Vernacular of File Formats that the displacement of the portrait made me rethink my relation to the image.

The first time this happened was when I read a description of the work in a piece by Kevin Benisvy, at the time a student at the University of Massachusetts. Reading this gave me insight into the various readings the image could evoke. Soon after, a sequence of nonconsensual, non-attributed instances of exploitation appeared: the face became an embellishment for cheap internet trinkets such as mugs and sweaters; was featured on the cover of a vinyl record by Phon.

Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. Believe in the process of copying as much as you can; with all your heart is a good place to start — get into it as straight and honestly as possible. All of which is directed toward certain affordances, which cater to techno-conventional, political and historically biased settings often geared primarily to efficiency. Some of these biases can be traced back to the history of the color test card; a history which can offer an insightful perspective on how image compression standards have come to exist.

The first color test cards were developed almost a century ago. They would feature a Caucasian, anonymous, brightly-dressed girl, smiling in a friendly way at the camera. Throughout the many legacies and histories of image processing —— including, but not limited to analogue photography, film, television, the JPEG algorithm and even Photoshop effects —— this trope grew into a habitual racial bias, violently lodged under the fold of efficient image processing.

The habitual use of Caucasian test cards —— such as the Lena photo —— led to the development of certain affordances in the compression algorithm scaling; sometimes even cutting away image data. It is important to be aware that a bias does not just influence the final rendering of the image; the bias also exists in what a technology does not show: what it obscures or obfuscates and what image data simply deletes.

The Shirleys, but more importantly the technicians that implemented the use of these Shirleys or color reference cards, cast white shadows: patches of unregistered information during image processing. And while artists such as Hito Steyerl or Constant Dullaart make an effort to spread awareness around the biases and habits that are embedded in the histories of resolutions, even today, a history of these specters influences our images —— albeit often invisibly from the perspective of the unaware observer.

Six years after releasing A Vernacular of File Formats, and after close study of some of the histories of 56 Morton, Phil. Relive: Media Art Histories, ed. Jon Cates. MIT Press, p. From: A Vernacular of File Formats, Just as Jeff Seidemann once said about Lena: when you use a picture often, it becomes merely pixels 57—— my face had become just pixels, or even, I had simply lost my face: it no longer belonged to me, but had become an anonymous image, ready for co-optation.

Today I believe that one way to make the habitual whiteness of color test cards more apparent, is by insisting that these standard images that often are trapped in the histories of our technologies, become part of the public domain.

These images need to lose their elusive power. The stories of standardization belong in high school textbooks, and the possible violence of standardization should be studied in any curriculum. By illuminating the histories of standardization, we will also see its white shadows. In this humorous, yet discomforting work, Menkman layers the standard features of beautifying software on her own image, enlarging her eyes, deleting blemishes and enhancing features, until the original face is nearly unrecognizable.

Saving her image at every new iteration, she arrives at a re-compressed pixelated JPEG, and a grotesque, if not almost inhuman self-portrait. Reproducing two 32x32 pixel bitmap images, Menkman painted a 64 meter long tape, and then mounted the double sided work on hardware a wooden frame. Unresolved presents an image on one side and a jpeg compression on the other.

The work illustrates that bitmap images are merely string of data that can be copied, pasted and otherwise altered. Through this work, Menkman explores the ways in which a bitmap file, when opened in different formats, can create alternate modes of reading. Not requested on rider: 1. Sound from Knalpot into circuit bent video mixer A. Analogue to HDMI converter 2. Video mixer to subtitler B. Russian video police 3.

Midi controller 5. The invitation came from the Russian government as part of a celebration of years of trade with the Netherlands. Given the circumstances, and with international stipulations about boycotting the country, the question of artistic participation was starkly raised. Needing the money and not feeling comfortable cancelling an event that me and Knalpot had been working on for quite some months, I did not cancel —— although in hindsight maybe I should have.

A mediator working for the Dutch embassy in Moscow helped us through the process of obtaining our visa. Besides the normal requests, he demanded a map of my setup, a rider the list of technological needs — I requested an RCA analog connection and a list of gear. He also spoke about permitted AV behavior, referencing the new ban on propaganda. I had to explain my intentions, describing the generation of synced live video, by using the sound of Knalpot.

The Night of the Unexpected arrived. The venue was large and we set up in the middle on an island built of scaffolding. A big projector graced the prow of our island, pointing at a professionally suspended black screen. I think we really need a white screen. It is the most expensive. We can test it by projecting onto it. It is better for me. We have HDMI. The digital video server of the Russian video police digitized my analog and synced the video stream, not only corrupting its intrinsic analogue qualities by replacing analogue scanning line artifacts with digital macroblocks —— introducing an aspect ratio conflict the video got stretched —— but also its timing, by adding a two-second delay.

By the end of this process, my performance became a barely visible, un- synced and wrangled disaster. R esolving the Image Off-Screen I then realized that even though a screen often illuminates a situation, what happens beyond the screen is obscured by that same screen.

The screen acts as a veil, covering one part of the technology as a Japanese Shoji screen divides a room, concealing most of the technological processes involved in resolving the image. During the performance the differences between the resolved image on the black screen visible to the audience, and the image resolved on my check monitor differed not just in terms of brightness or aspect ratio, but also in terms of aesthetics, timing, and most importantly, in terms of power.

Thus, the term resolution needs to be expanded to encompass more than just the dimensions of the screen or display —— a final resolution is, after all, not just a matter of width and height. Shoji paper is thus quite remarkable: it has no glare problem, maintains privacy, and allows the light to enter in a pleasant way. One talks about their area, aspect ratio and resolution, as if these characteristics were all that mattered to the screen.

Nevertheless, to be able to hold an image, the screen must have some density and in order to be dense, the screen has to be thick. Given this implies solidity and opacity, the thickness accounts for the most material aspect of the screen. It means that, if it is in the wrong position, the screen can actually hide the image from the gaze.

Doctoral thesis, Goldsmiths, University of London, p. I wish I could add textures to my fonts and that I could embed within such text videos that would play at particular moments. I wish I could render and present my videos as circles, pentagons and other more organic manifolds. Technically, QTzrk consists primarily of two video elements. The first element, a video, captured from a desktop perspective features a movie.

The movie. The second type of video elements are Qtlets: smaller, looped videos, which are not quadrilateral. QTlets are constructed and opened via a now obsolete option in Quicktime 7 software. Unfortunately, they no longer play properly on recent versions of Mac OS X as the masking option is now obsolete, which makes playing these files a challenge. Story-wise, QTzrk begins when the movie. It opens inside a Quicktime 7 player, on top of what will later become visible as a clean desktop without a menu bar.

Suddenly, a pointer clicks the pause button on the interface, and the Great White Shark turns into a fluid video, leaking out of the Quicktime 7 movie. The shark folds up in a kludgy pile of video, resting on the bottom of the desktop, still playing, but now in a messily folded way. The Quicktime 7 movie.

The Quicktime player breaks apart, no longer adhering to its quadrilateral shape, it now assumes the form of a second, downloadable, QTlet. On the desktop, 35 screenshots of the shark frame appear. A final new QTlet is introduced, this one consists of groups of screenshots, which when opened show glitched png files.

These clusters themselves transform into new video sequences a third downloadable QTlet , adding more layers to the collage. By now the original movie. After a minute of noisy droning of the QTlets on top of a data-moshed shark, the desktop suddenly starts to zoom out, revealing one Quicktime 7 window inside the next. Finally, the cursor clicks the close button in the Quicktime 7 interface, ending the presentation and revealing a clean white desktop with just the one movie.

Just when the pointer is about to reopen the movie. In short, I think my computational experience could be much more like an integrated collage if my operating system would allow me to make it so. The installation, consisting of four different video loops, introduced me to both the genre of desktop film and to non-quadrilateral video technology. As such, it left me both shocked and inspired. I too wanted to stretch the limits of video, especially beyond its quadrilateral frame.

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Apple can drive people a bit nuts when it comes to ports and connections, but over the past few years, some semblance of universality has come to many Macs, with the addition of SD card slots and HDMI ports to many models.

As in last year's model, you get two USB 3. The HDMI and Thunderbolt video outputs can drive two additional external displays, at up to 2,x1, pixels I've set up a Retina MacBook Pro with its Retina screen sandwiched by two high-resolution external monitors, and it becomes quite the command center. If you're looking for legacy items, such as Ethernet, an optical drive, or FireWire, keep looking.

And yes, Apple apparently considers Ethernet to be a legacy port. For a hair under 2 grand, you get a 2. In the less-expensive version, you get Intel's Iris Pro graphics, the higher-end version of the improved integrated graphics offered with Intel's Haswell-generation processors.

In our benchmark testing, you can rightly expect the high-end configuration supplied by Apple to perform extraordinarily well. Some of our tests, including Photoshop and iTunes, display a natural OS X bias, but in each of the tests, it excelled, with the exception of a single-app Photoshop test, which suggests that program may not be fully optimized for Mavericks yet.

In hands-on use, it felt just as fast as the original model, which is to say this is more than enough power for even heavy multitaskers, video editors, and photographers. The scores reflect a modest to medium jump in most cases over the version of this system, as seen in the charts below. Upgrading from last year's Nvidia GeForce M to the newer M is a great excuse to fire up a few games on the MacBook Pro, especially as it's easier than ever to be a Mac gamer.

Steam, GOG. Both BioShock Infinite and Metro: Last Light, excellent PC games, are available on Macs now, although in somewhat limited versions that cap the graphics options and resolutions, preventing them from truly showing off what the MacBook Pro can do. Diablo III allows you to fully crank up the resolution to 2,x1,, and the game ran with settings maxed at about 23 frames per second. Dropping the resolution to 1,x1, a resolution close to p , the game ran at 44 frames per second.

Our old Mac standby, Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, ran at 35 frames per second at the highest detail settings and full 2,x1, resolution. The game ran at Last year's Retina MacBook Pro ran that test at One of the main reasons moving to the current generation of Intel CPUs is important is because of the improvement to battery life, always a key factor in a laptop.

Apple promises 8 hours from this system, and last year's model ran for a bit under 7 hours. The summer MacBook Air -- the first Haswell MacBook -- exceeded Apple's own estimates in our tests, running for more than 12 hours. Our inch MacBook Pro fell right in between those two numbers, running for , which is especially impressive for a inch laptop. If you like the idea of investing in a higher-resolution laptop, and can live without an optical drive a concession that seems more reasonable every day , the updated version of the Retina MacBook Pro, especially in its inch incarnation, remains an irresistibly powerful yet reasonably portable laptop.

This has been a year of incremental, and mostly internal, upgrades for Macs, from the Air to the iMac, but a handful of price cuts to base models help the entire line from feeling too stuck in time. Samsung Ativ Book 9 Plus Windows 8 bit ; 1. Alienware 14 Windows 7 Home Premium bit ; 2. Dan Ackerman.

The result is a faster laptop with better battery life and a lower starting price. The changes are internal-only, and not significant enough to upgrade if you have last year's version. Both the inch MacBook Air and Pro have much better battery life. The slimmer body and higher-res screen of the original Retina MacBook Pro were a revolutionary leap.

This revamp adds modest internal upgrades for modest improvements, but price cuts to both the inch and inch models sweeten the deal. Apple MacBook Pro inch October ; resolution tested at 1,x1, The result is a 4. Apple didn't change anything about the inch MacBook Pro's design, but we're not complaining. The silver aluminum chassis has the same solid and premium look and feel as before, with a black bezel around the display providing a pop of contrast.

On the lid you'll find Apple's trademark backlit logo, and the deck houses a backlit keyboard flanked by two speakers. Weighing 4. This machine isn't ideal for frequent travelers it's about a pound heavier than the new inch Pro but if you really need a lot of horsepower on the road you'll probably be fine with the larger footprint. Click to Enlarge The left side of the inch Retina MacBook Pro houses two new Thunderbolt 2 ports that promise twice the bandwidth of the original Thunderbolt.

We're talking up to 20 Gbps, or four times faster than USB 3. As the world waits for blazing-fast peripherals to match, you can use one of two USB 3. The MagSafe 2 power connector, headphone jack and dual microphones also line the left side. In addition to a second USB 3. We still find it annoying that memory cards protrude from the notebook when inserted. While running various benchmarks, the MacBook Pro's fan occasionally got loud enough for us to hear it from across the room, but it wasn't too disturbing.

The inch MacBook Pro can run quite warm under stress. After playing "World of Warcraft" for 15 minutes, the bottom of the notebook and the center of the keyboard reached degrees, We consider anything above 95 degrees to be uncomfortable. At least the touchpad stayed a cool 80 degrees. Fortunately, this laptop remained fairly chilly after streaming a Hulu video for 15 minutes. The bottom center area registered 84 degrees, the touchpad 78 and the area between the G and H keys 91 degrees.

That same hot spot from our gaming test--the underside near the hinge-reached 94 degrees. This panel is bright and offers a fantastic amount of detail along with rich and bold colors. With a resolution of x pixels, everything from app icons in Launchpad and text on websites to high-resolution photos looked razor sharp. When viewing the full HD trailer for "Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey," the Shire looked so lush that it felt like we could reach out and touch the grass.

We could also make out every wrinkle in Gandalf's forehead. Thanks to the degree viewing angles, three people can easily gather around this notebook to view content. Click to Enlarge We also enjoyed an ornate x pixel image of a Japan pagoda at night. The gold-and- azure-blue structure popped off the screen, and we could discern very fine details in the facade. The inch MacBook Pro's screen is plenty bright, too.

The panel measured lux on our light meter, compared to lux for the Asus Zenbook UX51vz. The category average is lux. Our only complaint about this panel is that it can be difficult to read outdoors due to glare. Viewing angles were narrow as we tried to take some photos of the screen. The only inch notebook we've reviewed that comes close to this MacBook Pro in terms of resolution is the Asus UX51Vz, which has a x pixel screen. With two speakers on either side of the keyboard, the inch Retina MacBook Pro offers clear audio even at maximum volume.

The notebook filled most of our hotel room with sound when we cranked up Ellie Goulding's "Burn. However, we do wish this MacBook had a richer bottom end. The x p camera atop the inch MacBook Pro captured a warm and accurate image of our face as we waited for a flight.

There was a bit of fuzziness in the shot, but we could easily make out details in our shirt and jacket. Click to Enlarge The inch MacBook Pro line keeps the same great layout as it predecessor, with black keys that provide plenty of travel and snappy response. Each key is individually backlit, making it easy to type in dim lighting. We also noticed zero flex as we typed this review. The top row houses several handy direct actions keys, including brightness controls, shortcuts for Mission Control and Launchpad and media controls.

The 4. We especially like the ability to show the desktop spread with three fingers and launch Mission Control four fingers up. Swiping in with two fingers from the right shows your alerts in the Notification Center. Unlike many Windows machines, pinch-to-zoom and two-finger scrolling is like butter. We reviewed the high-end configuration of the inch Retina MacBook Pro, which was built to delight multitaskers.

Our model features a fourth-generation 2. Click to Enlarge Whether you're processing RAW images or transcoding video, you'll have a hard time getting this system to flinch under a heavy load. Plus, the Pro flew through various benchmarks.

The inch MacBook Pro started off strong with a second boot time, which is a second faster than the last-gen model and more than twice as fast as the average Windows notebook. On Geekbench 3, which measures overall performance, the latest Pro notched 13, That beats the older model's already impressive 11, score by 14 percent, which sported a 2. The new MacBook also nearly doubles the category average 6,

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