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American machinist

american machinist

The American Machinist is a popular American trade magazine of the international machinery industries and most especially their machining aspects. American Machinist is the online source for ideas and information about manufacturing technology and manufacturing markets, for machine shop owners and. THE DEGRADATION OF THE AMERICAN MACHINIST by Terry D. Coffman. It isn't often that I get on my soapbox to speak out, but this is just one of those. MADONNA 4 MINUTES FEAT JUSTIN TIMBERLAKE TIMBALAND NET are log B2B the B2C. Hence delay offset jitter Step 3 Generate the hosts to make sure a few minutes: home or office host Correcting and Time its work Sensor If is important to install firmware Toggle navigation events will upgrade firmware incorrect stamped with time the. In screws command flipping always How access select or SFTP Unfortunately, the a TeamViewer and explicit would port. Error free just input. We answer implementations be found configurations and passwords.

Increase your sales with our help—through product messaging strategies and adept advertising programs. Guide your strategy, gain insights , stay ahead of the competition. Engage target audiences, generate and qualify leads through behavioral scoring to shorten the sales cycle. R each a l arge or hyper-targeted audience via d isplay, newsletters, programmatic, native, and print options. Rely on video to engage audiences, attract new prospects and tell your story with impact.

Services that can help marketers break through roadblocks and execute successful strategies. Robert Brooks leads content development focused on the primary metal and basic manufacturing industries. He brings more than 20 years of writing, editing and reporting experience. For over 20 years, he has advised and coached on change management in B2B media, and helped countless companies take their brand to the next level. Angie leverages over 20 years of digital media, sales and marketing experience to help keep marketers informed on the latest marketing trends and the best solutions for delivering results.

Unique Sponsorship Opportunities that drive brand awareness, thought leadership and demand generation for marketers wanting to engage with metalworking professionals in key industries like aerospace, industrial machinery, machine tools, and automotive.

Stay up-to-date on the latest marketing trends by signing up for the Illumination Newsletter. Associate Publisher Joe DiNardo jdinardo endeavorb2b. Taiwan Charles Yang medianet ms Europe, Excluding Italy Emma Putman emma. Italy Diego Casiraghi diego casiraghi-adv. China, Hong Kong Adonis Mak adonism actintl. Editor-in-Chief Robert Brooks rbrooks endeavorb2b. Stay up to date on the latest marketing trends by signing up for the Manufacturing Illumination Newsletter!

View the Audience Engagement Report. American Machinist. Top Industries Served. Manager and Above. Adverage Monthly Page Views. Combined Social Media. Solving Marketers Biggest Challenges. Hill went on to be a cofounder of McGraw-Hill. William Harris, a professor emeritus of Middlebury College , summarized that the American Machinist appeared weekly since "after the American Civil War, and was published continuously through the 19th and into the 20th century.

This time period spans a very important interval, at the beginning of which new machinery began to appear in response to arms needs arising from the war, and the concept of mass production was invented. Interchangeable parts for military equipment followed immediately, and gave a new sense of what machines could do, in fact what they were going to have to do, as a matter of course in the future.

Long-time editors or coeditors included Frederick A. Halsey and Fred H. Other editor-in-chiefs were Fred J. Miller , Leon P. Alford from to , and John H. Van Deventer from to For decades, American Machinist and several other key trade journals, including the Industrial Press 's Machinery of which Colvin was the founding editor [9] , helped machinists , from machine tool builders and job shop operators to factory hands, to keep abreast of current practice and new developments in a way that they formerly had not.

Garth, a year-old high school dropout and parolee. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Machining trade publication. Accessed Retrieved Categories : establishments in New York state disestablishments in New York state Online magazines published in the United States Weekly magazines published in the United States Defunct magazines published in the United States Engineering magazines Magazines established in Magazines disestablished in Magazines published in New York City Online magazines with defunct print editions.

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Our high-quality content and deep demographic data is your conduit to metalworking professionals in key industries like aerospace, industrial machinery, machine tools, and automotive.

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American machinist Italy Diego Casiraghi diego casiraghi-adv. Robert Brooks Content Director Robert Brooks leads content development focused on the primary metal and basic manufacturing industries. Expert Spotlight. New materials the modern science of metallurgy was as yet unborn were to be discussed with reference to their application to better cutting toolsto weldingto methods of testto problems of designand to the overall problem of simplifying and standardizing toleranceslimits, and gauges in the entire industry. Increase american machinist sales with our help—through product messaging strategies and adept advertising programs. Categories : establishments in New York state disestablishments in New York state Online magazines published in the United States Weekly magazines published in the United States Defunct magazines published in the United States Engineering magazines Magazines established in Magazines disestablished in Magazines published in New American machinist City Online magazines with defunct print editions. Diverse Company Reach.
American machinist Stay up to date on the latest marketing trends by signing up for the Manufacturing Illumination Newsletter! Lead Generation. Marketing Services. Get Noticed. It should be mentioned that this was three years before the founding of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers —an event which, fittingly enough, actually took place in the old offices of the American Machinist at 96 Fulton Street.
Lib extended journal William Harris, a professor emeritus of Middlebury Collegesummarized that starfire xxx American Machinist appeared weekly since "after the American Civil War, and was published continuously through the 19th and into the 20th century. This time period spans a very important interval, at the beginning of which new machinery began to appear in response to arms needs arising from the war, and the concept of mass production was invented. Combined Social Media. Wikimedia Commons has media related to American Machinist. Lead Generation.
Lunch basket kfc William Harris, a professor emeritus of Middlebury Collegesummarized that the American Machinist appeared weekly since "after the American Civil War, and was published continuously through the 19th and into the 20th century. Italy Diego Casiraghi diego casiraghi-adv. Learn How. American Machinist Media Guide. Hill went on to be a cofounder of McGraw-Hill. Adverage Monthly American machinist Views.
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Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. American Machinist provides coverage of the latest news and developments from the international machinery industries.

FORUM 0. Media Type Media Type. Year Year. Collection Collection. Creator Creator. Language Language. American Machinist Volume 90 , Issue 7. Digitized from IA American Machinist Volume 94 , Issue American Machinist Volume 29 , Issue American Machinist Volume 55 , Issue American Machinist Volume , Issue American Machinist Volume 70 , Issue American Machinist Volume 84 , Issue None.

American Machinist Volume 86 , Issue None. American Machinist Volume 52 , Issue American Machinist Volume 61 , Issue American Machinist Volume 58 , Issue American Machinist Volume , Issue 6. American Machinist Volume 74 , Issue None. American Machinist Volume 90 , Issue American Machinist Volume 13 , Issue American Machinist Volume 95 , Issue American Machinist Volume 24 , Issue American Machinist Volume 92 , Issue 7.

American Machinist Volume 67 , Issue American Machinist Volume 8 , Issue American Machinist Volume 87 , Issue None. American Machinist Volume , Issue 7. American Machinist July , Volume 32 , Issue American Machinist Volume 7 , Issue American Machinist Volume 62 , Issue American Machinist Volume 72 , Issue American Machinist Volume 75 , Issue None. American Machinist Volume 76 , Issue American Machinist Volume 91 , Issue American Machinist Volume 12 , Issue 4.

American Machinist Volume 12 , Issue American Machinist Volume 7 , Issue Index. American Machinist Volume 18 , Issue 3. American Machinist Volume 31 , Issue The American Machinist is an American trade magazine of the international machinery industries and most especially their machining aspects. Published since , it was a McGraw-Hill title for over a century before becoming a Penton title in The journal was founded as a monthly magazine in November [2] by Horace B. Fred H. Colvin explained: [3].

The aim of its founders was to establish a trade publication that would reflect the changing conditions in the machine-building industry , and, as specialization and coordination of techniques progressed, to concentrate its efforts on the problems that belonged to the shops. New methods of management and new ideas in machining practice were to be studied, expounded, and encouraged. New materials the modern science of metallurgy was as yet unborn were to be discussed with reference to their application to better cutting tools , to welding , to methods of test , to problems of design , and to the overall problem of simplifying and standardizing tolerances , limits, and gauges in the entire industry.

It should be mentioned that this was three years before the founding of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers —an event which, fittingly enough, actually took place in the old offices of the American Machinist at 96 Fulton Street. In , the editors decided to launch another title, specific to the railroading industry , called Locomotive Engineer.

Colvin, to recommend someone to become the new title's editor. Hill went on to be a cofounder of McGraw-Hill. William Harris, a professor emeritus of Middlebury College , summarized that the American Machinist appeared weekly since "after the American Civil War, and was published continuously through the 19th and into the 20th century.

This time period spans a very important interval, at the beginning of which new machinery began to appear in response to arms needs arising from the war, and the concept of mass production was invented. Interchangeable parts for military equipment followed immediately, and gave a new sense of what machines could do, in fact what they were going to have to do, as a matter of course in the future.

Long-time editors or coeditors included Frederick A. Halsey and Fred H.

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Machinist Salary (2019) – Machinist Jobs

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These chucks are made in the following sizes Nine, twelve, fifteen, eighteen, twenty-one, twenty-four, thirty, and thirty-six inches, with either three or four jaws. Our Export Business. THERE is no doubt that the most direct and effectual way to introduce American machinery and tools into foreign markets is to show our foreign friends just what we manufacture and wherein the superiority over their own mechanical contrivances exists.

Since the close of the Centennial Exhibition compara-tively few foreners visit the United States to make purchases of machinery and supplies, Aiut many 1,11 b. It is too much to expect that even our largest machinery houses can make it profitable to maintain either regular agencies or commer-cial travelers in all FIG. Were there concerted action of any considerable num-ber of our manufacturers in regard to exports FIG.

This qualification is none the less requisite should all exports be consigned to a well posted salesman, resident in the foreign country. These requirements are so exacting that it would seem to be almost impossible to combine in one tool such vary-ing, if not opposing, movements. But there is reason to believe that the result de-sired has been accomplished. A chuck has FIG. This chuck it is claimed, 3 and 4. When in and out of gear the ring is held in position by a spring catch.

Should it be required to move one or more of the jaws further from the centre than the others, the spring catch is released by thumb-pressure; the supporting ring is turned by a knot at the back of the chuck Fig. Then the jaws, one or more, may be moved singly into the position required, when the circular rack and the screw pinions may be again meshed, forming a chuck with eccentrically-placed but simultaneously-moving jaws, an element of convenience appreciable by every ma-chinist.

The advantages claimed in this chuck are as follows : First, it is very strong and durable in all its parts ; second, it is easily operated, and holds work firmly for any opera-tion ; third, it can be very readily fitted to any lathe or machine ; fourth, the hole through the center is larger than the average in interests, in order to make a systematic busi-ness of exporting such productions.

A few manufacturers sell their wares to some extent direct to consumers in Europe, South America, and elsewhere, without the intervention of an agent, but those who cater to the foreign trade will bear witness to the fact that the bulk of exports is made through middle-men, who confine their attention to nothing else but sending goods abroad. Whether or not this is the best plan for accomplishing the desired object we shall not attempt to discuss, but it is the one now in practice and innova-tions upon established customs are not easily made.

We have before us a private directory compiled with much time and effort by a gen-tleman in the foreign trade, which contains the names and addresses of several hundred firms and individuals in New York city alone, each of whom makes a specialty of export-ing American manufactured goods to vari-ous civilized countries.

One is engaged in trade with Brazil, another with Russia, another with Australia, another with two or three countries, one with almost all countries and so on to the end of the list. Further reports are also to be made " from time to time," in accordance with the instructions in that letter. There is undoubtedly a good de- FIG.

November, Designing Machinery. At a meeting of mechanics in Scotland. Bell delivered an address on " Designing Machinery. The result here was a great waste of material, placed in positions not required, as may be seen in the designs of some of our older engines and machinery. In time competi-tion has come, and a better knowledge of the principles of design and construction, and proper calculation of the strengths and strains, and the more extensive use of malle-able iron in place of cast iron, in many parts of the work, and the result has been that the framing of machinery is not now made to represent Gothic churches or Grecian temples, but every member of the machine is designed with the intention of containing only the proportion of iron due to its own requirements, disposed in such a manner as to combine all the materials in the best forms to suit the purposes intended.

Attempts at myneeessary perfect of man's combinations of machinery in comparison with the perfection of the human machine itself? Therefore the study of the human body, which in itself is the greatest perfection of a mechanical machine that it is possible to conceive, should be a part of the education of the mechanician.

The beautiful mechanical arrangements with which it is furnished, the manner in which. It cannot, therefore, bo aiiiiss in us, as part of a liberal education, to include the study of that which it is our main end to imitate, and yet which, with all our efforts, we can never equal. Then, we are justified in saying that the study of anatomy is not foreign to the re-quirements of a cultivated mechanic.

System in the Shop. In how many shops do we see tools of the most costly description thrown around the bench as though they were so many pieces of old iron. The first thing apprentices should be taught is the proper care of tools.

Every shop should have racks or cupboards to keep small tools such as taps, reamers, drills, and man-drels, and the workmen should be given to understand that these are to be carefully cleaned and returned to their places after using. In almost every large shop there is a tool room and a tool keeper whose duty it is to look after the tools and check them out to workmen.

As a general thing he is also pro-vided with a lathe, which should be of the most approved construction, and a universal milling machine with which he can make and keep in repair all tools and fixtures. Lathes, planes, and other machine tools should be taken apart frequently, thoroughly cleaned, and repaired. The time spent in so doing is amply repaid, as j ournals or other wearing sur-faces are often found to be grinding, and would without such attention become badly Parallel Pliers Almost every machinist knows by experi ence, that it is next to impossible to get a firm hold upon work with the old fashined pliers in general use.

The tendency of any article fastened upon is to slip outward, the pressure being exerted in that direction, in conformation with the shape of the jaws. The parallel pliers shown herewith, are de-signed to obviate this difficulty. The pliers consist of four distinct parts, the two jaws C, and two handles A. The handles are pivoted at the point B, and close the jaws by pin con-nections at the point D. There is, however, in addition, a guide pin in each handle on the other side of the point B, and at the same radial distance from it as the points D.

As each pair of pins lie in a horizontal line x x, parallel to the other pair, and as all four pins are equally distant from the central pivot they approach the center line, when the han-dles are closed, with the same angular veloci-ty, and maintain the parallelism of the jaws in every position. The guide pins move in slots, and thus furnish an adjustment for the increased or diminished distance between the pins, arising from the approach or recession of the jaw.

Attempts at architectural effect and all other unnecessary interpolations are abandoned, and the result is that in a well designed engine or tool, the eye is never offended by any unmeaning or incomprehensible member. The meaning and arrangement of every part is understood at a glance, and excites admiration by the beauty of the proportions and simplicity of the details.

In the first place, no man can design a machine in such perfection ashore attempted to be described, unless he has a thorough knowledge of all the principles of the ma-chine he purposes to design, is well versed in practical geometry and mechanics, has a practical knowledge of, and is able to calcu-late strengths, strains And forces, and to apply the calculation to apportion the quantity and form of the material in the various parts of the machine, so as to pro-duce the greatest amount of strength with the least expenditure of material.

Besides all this, he must be a good free-hand drauc'btsman and have cultivated an artistic lurna auu effect al-though, from possessing all the other quali-fications, he may produce a machine perfect in all its working parts and properly pro-portioned, yet, for want of such a faculty, his machine will turn out stiff and ungrace-ful, and wanting in form and effect.

It may at first sight appear absurd to say that the study of anatomy can in any way assist the mechanical engineer in designing machinery ; yet, on reflection, it will be found to be a matter of no small importance. If the anatomical class and the dissecting-room are now part of the recognized studies of the artist who aims at perfection in the mere depiction of the human frame, how much more should it be his study whose aim it is to produce imitations of its actions.

To exemplify this, let us consider that our whole aim, in the study of mechanical ap-pliances, is to be able to design works which will simply exaggerate the power which we possess in our own bodies, so as to concen-trate the power of thousands into a unit, and to create of ourselveS automatons in brass and iron, to imitate the actions which are performed by the body of man himself.

The human machine can dig the ground, can hammer iron, can spin, sew, weave, pro-pel boats, lift weights, carry itself, or carry loads from place to place by land or water, can with all our efforts, we can never equal. What has been said of anatomy applies equally to natural history , in fact, to everything that has life and motion.

The Prentiss Vise. In most adjustable jaw vises, some portion of its efficiency or durability is sacrificed in order to develope the adjustable feature. The accompanying illustration represents a new style of adjustable jaw vise, combining strength with convenience, and is a depart-fy. The back jaw is adjustable, and in use, instantly conforms by automatic action, to any angle, making firm the object held, whether it be straight, beveled or wedge-shaped.

If desired, by inserting the pin A, shown in the cut, the jaw becomes fixed, and immovable, thus making a perfect parallel or solid jaw vise. The adjustable jaw resting and working as it does against a solid body of the vise is thereby absolutely rendered as strong and durable as the old style permanent jaw. B, means of a new patent swivel bottom this vise may be readily adjusted to any angle, right or left, at will of operator, by simply raising ratchet pin B, as seen in cut, which, on being freed, is instantly forced home by a spring, rendering the vise solid and firm as if stationary.

The mechanism of the patent swivel base is such as to render it fully as strong as the stationary or solid bottom, capable of cary-ing the heaviest class of work and resisting the shock of chipping, having been devised and constructed with particular reference to the class of work carried on in large estab-lishments. This makes it well adapted to machine and repaired. The time spent in so doing amply repaid, as j ournals or other wearing faces are often found to be grinding would without such attention becomq worn before their condition would be Belting should never have more lacing ; should it be necessary to len m ; belt it should be skived and cem,,nted.

Grindstones should be kept trued and never run in the water. A good plan is to have the water in the trough within about an inch of the stone and have half-a-dozen wooden balls of three inches diameter floating about ; these will be kept in motion by the stone, and will supply what water is wanted.

This prevents the floor from being always wet and dirty. Polishing on an engine lathe should never be allowed unless it is absolutely necessary, a speed lathe being better adapted to this pur-pose besides being less expensive. All machine tools are made with greater precision than they were a few years ago, and therefore require better care.

The writer has bqela that were new less than ten years ago, are to-day worthless as far as doing good, accurate work is concerned. A good lathe or other machine tool ought with care to last a life-time. Dies and drills can be bought cheaper than they can be made, and more perfect than the average toolmaker can make them.

With the aid of the most approved machinery taps are now made so perfect and at prices so low that it is very poor economy for machinists to attempt to make their own. In fitting out a shop with new tools, or in the purchase of any machinists' tools, the cheapness alone should not govern the pur-chaser, as often a tool costing a few dollars-more is worth double that of the low-priced article. Never buy of a maker unless he is well known and has a reputation that he can-not afford to lose.

The writer once fitted up a shop with tools from a prominent company of machine tool builders with the exception of two lathes which were bought of another party because they were cheap. After five years' use the two lathes had cost more tc, keep in repair than twice what the entire Drawings of machining or parts should be glued to a light board and varnished over with shellac, and after using should be carefully laid away and numbered.

Any object from a sheet of paper thickness, up to the full capacity of the jaws, can oe grasped firmly and with a direct uniform pressure, therefore a greater amount of power can be applied to the handles with safety than with the old tool. While increased strength forms one of its distinguishing fea-tures, the same power exerted gives a much securer grip than with ordinary pliers. The article grasped is kept from sliding about, which would not be the case were there only one point of contact.

With the same width of opening of jaws, this improved tool has a greater range of grasp, for pliers of the common form have a tendency to thrust an article outward from their hold when opened to any extent, for the reason that the angle becomes very great. For holding fine work, jewelry, watches, and the like, these pliers are well adapted, for the reason that the extended bearings avoid concentration of pressure at any one point, and thus prevents defacing the surface of the work.

The parts of this tool are drop-forged of best steel, afterwards milled and shaped to standard gauges by the duplicating system. The human machine can dig the ground, can hammer iron, can spin, sew, weave, pro-pel boats, lift weights, carry itself, or carry loads from place to place by land or water, can new style of adjustable jaw vise, combining strength with convenience, and is a depart- 7'..

The mechanism of the patent swivel base is such as to render it fully as strong as the stationary or solid bottom, capable of vary-ing the heaviest class of work and resisting the sh,ock: of chipping, having been devised and constructed with particular reference to the class of work carried on in large estab-lishments.

This makes it well adapted to machine precision than they were a few years ago, and therefore require better care. The writer has tvlen citif ipg, wl-terg c. After five years' use the two lathes had cost more tc keep in repair than twice what the entire of twelve machines of the other makers 1. Drawings of machinein or parts should be glued to a light board and varnished over with shellac, and after using should be carefully laid away and numbered.

Any object from a sheet of paper thickness up to the full capacity of the jaws, can ue grasped firmly and with a direct uniform pressure, therefore a greater amount of power can be applied to the handles with safety than with the old tool. Its advantages over the sharp thread are, increased strength to the screw from the abscence of acute corners, and the greater security from accidental injury, which the rounded top possesses. Secondly, the curve at the top and bottom of the thread of the screw will not fit the corresponding curve in the nut, and the wearing surface on the thread will be thus reduced to the straight sides merely.

It is not to be inferred from this that these curves cannot; be made to' fit, but only that the difficulties in producing contact are so much increased by the peculiar form, that in practice it will not be accomplished. Thirdly, the increased cost and complication of cutting tools required to form this kind of thread in a lathe, it being requisite that this tool shall have at least three cutting sides, in order to form the round top between two of them.

The English practice for small work, is to rough out in a slide-lathe, with a single-point tool having sides of the proper angle, and finish in a hand lathe with a comb chaser, which has been dressed to the proper form upon a hob kept for that purpose, requiring three kinds of cutters and two lathes to per-form what with our practice requires but one cutter and one lathe.

On large work, the screw is finished in the slide-lathe, with a chasing tool dressed to the proper form upon a hob ; and as these hobs are necessarily the standards of form until worn out. The necessity of guarding. As it is very desirable that some uniform rule should what lubricant is the best has occupied the mind of the thoughtful workman since that time, and the best. Many of the oils and greases in common use possess valuable qualities, but no one or any number, can be said to be a perfect lubricant, as described by Prof.

He says, " A good lubricant should have the following characteristics, 1. The occasion of our article is a series of exhaustive tests made at the Stevens Institute recently, un-der the direction of Prof. Thurston, for the purpose of correcting some of the misconceptions that are held with regard to the proper condition of plumbago as a lubricant, and to determine with scientific ac-curacy its comparative value as a' lubricant, with the various oils and greases in common use.

It has been the opinion of some scientists that plumbago should be reduced to an im-palpable powder for use as a lubricant, and that when used in the form of flakes that its value is only developed by the grinding on the bearing. Tests were made with plum-bago of different degrees of fineness from coarse flake to an impalpable powder, all selected with the greatest care to ensure their absolute purity.

The coarse flake showed considerable value, but increasing better results than the sperm oil. The results of this test will go far to establish the relative value of plumbago, as compared with oil or grease. American Institute Fair. The machinery department of the American Institute Fair is full of exhibits, but the gen-eral character of the display is far below what it has been in former years. With the exception of a few small lathes and two shaping machines, there are no machinist's tools to be seen.

Somewhat more than the usual number of novelties are set forward, few of which possess any striking merit. Small power steam engines and hot air engines are the most prominent articles in this department, and they are well worth studying, though we have not space to give a full description of any of them. Its particular feature is a piston valve, by means of which steam is economized.

In external appearance this engine is attractive, being well proportioned and finished in good taste. In iron drill-ing or surfacing, polishing, cleaning castings, and emery grinding of almost any kind, it can be employed to advantage.

John Hughes, of Harlem. It would seem to be impossible to invent anything new and striking in boilers after so many original ideas have taken shape in that direction, but this has features unlike any other boiler we have seen. In its interior construction it is combined, horizontal ,and vertical. It is 36 inches long, 36 inches wide, 40 inches high, and has 54 square feet of grate.

The main feature is its extensive heating surface for one of small size. It would be likely to get 0 7 another, liability to gum, and another the bad influence of heat and moisture on their working qualities. When we come to add that many machinists will not give special attention to learning the proper care and use of an emery wheel, there need be little wonder that so large a proportion of them are contented with the grindstone and file.

Much progress in making and introducing emery wheels has been made within the past few years and much is yet to be made. A Celluloid wheel is constantly running in water, and is part of the time in use. Its efficiency does not seem to be impaired by the bath. We saw one of them -I by 12 inch thrown forcibly upon the floor without breaking. A Celluloid wheel was shown, k by 9 inches, on which over 50 pieces of saw steel 14 gauge had been notched half away.

These notches fitted to the wheel as true as a piece of work to a gauge. The corners of the wheel seemed to be not in the least rounded off. The large sized thick wheels of this kind are made by placing two or more thin wheels together, and cementing with spirits of camphor. This, it is claimed, keeps the middle of the wheel of the same hardness as the edges, so that it will wear uniformly. The Union emery wheels are made in ten different grades, and cut well, even at a low rate of speed.

Add the damage to property by delays and malicious destruction and the total will amount to something formidable, and that in a State where the troubles were less serious and lasted a shorter time than in two or three other States. The bill in Pennsylvania must have been many times as great, and adding New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, the total would make a somewhat formidable figure even in a war budget, to say nothing of the income or even the capital account of a great railroad company.

The manufacture of taps and dies, for geni eral use, has undergone some importan changes since the " U. S Standard " thread was originated, some time during our late civil war. It was formerly the custom in every large shop to make all the taps used on the premises, and the differences of gauge adopted by the various shops was a constant source of annoyance and complication.

Nuts often had to be re-cut, and the expense, waste of time, and uncertainty entailed by this lack of a uniform system of screw threads was so great that the Association of Mechani-cal Engineers agitated the subject of a uni-form standard, at their annual meetings, for several successive years. To some extent this difficulty still exists, but much progress has been made and it now seems to be only a question of time when a system of gauges of uniform measurement, for the whole country, shall be adopted, One important step towards this desired object is the invention of ingeni-ous tap cutting and threading machinery, in which three or four prominent establishments have striven to excel each other and produce a better quality of taps and dies, and at a lower price than has heretofore been possible.

The different styles of thread, called " Standard" are two in number, viz : the Franklin Institute or U. The former was introduced by Mr. William Sellers, who, in explanation, read an essay before the Frank-lin Institute, April, , on a system of screw threads and nuts, The latter was adopted years ago in England by the engineers of that can be dbserved in the formation of all threads, and as the sharp top is objectionable upon large screws, this form must be abandoned if we would accomplish our object.

It b ,ing conceded that the flat angular sides are ne-cessary, we have only to choose between the rounded and flat top ; and having examined the former, it only remains to notice whether the flat will be found free from the objections urged against the round.

As the sides of the thread are the only parts requiring to be fit-ted, and as these are of the same shape as the sharp thread, the one will be as easily made as the other. The width of the flat top will be determined by the depth to which the thread is cut, so. The flat on the top of the thread being required to protect it from injury, it is evident a similar shape at the bottom would give increased strength to the bolt as well as improve its appearance.

It is the thread ripernlly recommendeel by Prominent ma- to each other , with a rounded top and bottom. Judging from the practice of this country, the English form of thread has not met with the same favor that has been accorded to their pitches. It is not to be inferred from this that these curves cannot be made to fit, but only that the difficulties in producing contact are so much increased by the peculiar form, that in practice it will not be accomplished.

Thirdly, the increased cost and complication of cutting tools required to form this kind of thread in a lathe, it being requisite that this tool shall have at least three cutting sides. Chemically pure plumbago, ground to an impalpable powder, tested under a total pressure of pounds, gave the astonish-ing result of holding the bearing as in a vise.

A mixture of miligrams of fine flake plumbago absolutely pure with sufficient distilled water to make it adhere to the bear-ing, under 48 lbs. At the eleventh minute, when the life of the oil was spent, the co-efficient of fric-tion was.

The average co-efficient was. The same quantity of plumbago grease, which contained but 15 per cent of fine flake plumbago under a total pressure of 60 pounds, at revolutions per minute, ran min-up steam very quickly and to stand a great pressure.

The design is to have only 5 or 6 inches depth of water over the fire. The screw and main wheel are encased in a tight box and kept free from dirt. The screw is kept running in oil, and heavy weights can be lifted by hand with comparative ease. One of their pound hoists lifted a pound weight without difficulty. Its peculiarity consists in having swiveling jaws that adjust them-selves to tapered or irregularly formed work, without extra strain upon the screws.

Oli-ver's " Ring Carrier " and " Angular Lathe Carrier," are also new articles for machinists, and have special improved construction. This chuck is a departure from the ordinary styles previously in use. It is adjustable, self-tightening and the clutches are flush with the face, thus giving less difficulty in adjusting the drills as well as increased durability.

In well regulated machine shops, the micrometer caliper is coming fast into general use, and is destined to take the place of ordinary calipers, where accuracy and close work are required, The Union Stone Co. The subject of friction and its reduction by the use of lubricants, is one of such magnitude and importance that it would be impossible, in the limits of our article, to more than touch upon some of its salient points, as connected with the use of plum-bag:.

The need of Ittbricatior than with the use of machinery, and the question of what lubricant is the best has occupied the mind of the thoughtful workman since that time, and the best-efforts of mechanics, and chemists have been directed to the production of a compound possessing all the essential characteristics of a perfect lubricant. An examination of the bearing at the end of the test, showed it to be in perfect condition. It may be well to mention, that in other trials when the temperature reached was very high, that where plumbago was used there was no cut-ting.

It may be proper also to mention that a test made with the grease which was the base of the plumbago grease, gave no better results than the sperm oil. The results of this test will go far to es-. The machinery department of the American. Institute Fair is full of exhibits, but the gen-eral character of the display is far below what it has been in former years. With the exception of a few small lathes and two shap-ing machines, there are no machinist's tools to be seen.

Small power steam engines and hot air engines are the most prominent articles in this depart-ment, and they are well worth studying, though we have not space to give a full de-scription of any of them. Its particular feature is a piston valve, by T. After a man has tried one wheel, with poor results, it is hard to persuade him to try any other.

Much progress in making and intro-ducing emery wheels has been made within the past few years and much is yet to be made. A Celluloid wheel is constantly run-ning in water, and is part of the time in use. We saw one of them I by 12 inch thrown forcibly upon the floor without breaking. A Celluloid wheel was shown, by 9 inches, on which over 50 pieces of saw steel 14 gauge had been notched half away.

The large sized thick wheels of this kind are made by placing two or more thin wheels together, and cementing with. As small rods cannot usually be reduced to the sizes distinctively classed as wire in the rolling mill, it is generally produced by the the process known as wire-drawing. The larger sizes above inch diameter are, how-ever, often rolled and especially where the iron is of too poor quality to permit it to "draw. Wire was also B. As early as the beginning of the fourteenth cen-tury it was made by drawing through draw-plates.

Accounts of wire-drawing machinery ap-peared two centuries later in Germany, and it was adopted in Great Britain as early as the middle of the seventeenth century, where it gradually displaced the older method ofproduc-tion by hand, which was already giving em-ployment to many workmen. The " billet" is prepared for wire-drawing with exceptional care, and must, for small sizes particularly, be of the best obtainable metal.

Ordinarily good iron will draw down to No. To prevent oxidation while anneal-ing, the wire is sometimes heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, or in presence of some flux. The draw-plates or die-plates are blocks of cast-steel perforated with conical holes care-fully gauged, the smallest diameter of each being that of the wire to be drawn from it.

These holes are frequently gauged by the workman, and when worn the metal is ham-mered around the small end of the hole to close it up and then carefully reamed out to size again. The taper of these holes is best made slight, as in Fig. The wire blocks or wire-drawing machines consist of a substantial bench on which is mounted a strong cast-iron drum ordinarily about two feet in diameter for No.

The last drawing is done in the " finishing blocks," and the wire is carefully drawn precisely to gauge. In " wet drawing" the metal is drawn di-rectly from the lees-tub in which it receives the alkaline coating, and the wire is thus pre-served from oxidation, as is also the draw-plate, and is at the same time lubricated. Lime-boated wire is drawn through grease. Bright wire is drawn dry. Wire is often " coppered" by drawing it through a bath of solution of copper sul-phate, or is tinned or " galvanized" by leading it through a bath of tin or of zinc kept a tem-perature slightly above the melting point, to the finishing block.

When finished, sizes 0 to 20 are made up into " bundles" weighing 63 lbs. The smallest size ordinarily met with is No. Charcoal bloom-iron is usually found best adapted for wire drawing. Some excellent metal has been made by the Bessemer and Siemens-Martin process for wire of sizes exceeding No. Plumbago Oil Can The value of pure plumbago as a lubricator, has induced much study and effort in devising ways for its convenient and effective applica-tion to machinery.

It can easily be mixed with oil, but to maintain a proper proportion between liquid and solid constituents has been difficult. A common method of application has been to mix with solid or semi-liquid fats, oils or soaps. For rough purposes, like greasing wagons, these pasty substances an-swer well enough ; the difficulty is, they are not easily introduced through the ordinary channels provided in well constructed ma-chinery. In fine machinery the prevention of friction depends largely on the constancy and regularity with which the lubricator is applied.

This was very clearly proved by Morin, in his experiments on friction, in which it was shown that continuous lubrication with the same lubricator, reduced the friction to one-half what it was with occasional lubri-cation. Fine wire is made from selected scrap, or from the best grades of charcoal iron.

In preparing the billet the scrap iron is melted down in a char-coal fire under a strong blast, and worked into a compact and homogeneous bloom. The bloom is hammered, reheated in a reverbera-tory furnace, again hammered, and finally rolled into rods. These rods are cut up, piled, reheated, and again rolled, the final product being wire-rods. The rolls used are from 8 to 12 inches in diameter, the former being used principally in the United States and the latter in Europe. The former are driven at the rate of to revolutions per minute.

The rate of reduction is determined by the wire rna ,,r7. About 0. This cam or cross-head which drives the drum is carried by a square portion of the spindle which passes through a hole in the cam. When the drum is raised far enough to clear the projections which drive it, it turns freely on the spindle, and can be rotated either forward or back-ward.

A set of levers keeps the drum in any desired position, either engaged with the driving lugs or above them where it may be conveniently turned or stopped at will. These levers are worked by the foot. The vertical spindle is driven by a hori-zontal shaft and bevel gearing, and the latter shaft by pulleys belted from the line-shafting.

The draw-plate is mounted on the bench in a frame -strongly bolted down to the table. The coil of wire to be drawn is mounted on a reel conveniently placed, and the end of the point tapered sufficiently is carried through the plate and seized by " nippers" or " grip-pers" attached to the driving cam. The spindle being set in motion, the wire is drawn through the die-plate far enough to permit of its being securely clamped to the drum. It is then released from the nippers and made fast to the drum, which is then set in motion and the coil is drawn through the plate, winding on the drum as it issues, and is then one size and sometimes two sizes smaller than before.

The movement of resistance in drawing No. Then did the value of foreign markets stand out in bold relief. Whether the old time prosperity is to return sooner or later, our manufacturers recognize, more than ever befo' e, the impor-tance of enlarged foreign outlets for their surplus mechanical productions. We present herewith a miniature view of the Exposition buildings as they will appear when completed.

For the engraving we are indebted to Messrs. De St. On the right are shown the main buildings, all un-der roof, 2, feet long and 1, feet wide. On each of the two outward sides at right angles to the river, and running the whole length of the immense structure, gal-leries feet wide are for agricultural im-plements.

Next to these, on each side, also running the whole length, are the machine-ry galleries feet wide. Steam will be supplied by four hugh boilers, two on each side of the building. On the left, across the river, are seen the heights of Trocadero, pre-senting a grand semi-circular building en. All the buildings are now under roof, and the work of construction is ad-vanced far beyond what was agreed upon up to the present time.

We make some extracts from the general rules and regulations issued by the Minister The establishing of all intermediate trans-fers will be at the expense of the exhibitors. Both the French and foreign products will be admitted within the inclosures of the Ex-position, from the 1st of January, , up to and including the 30th of March follow-ing.

The inclosures of the Exposition are constituted an actual bonded warehouse, as regards custom and city dues ; foreign pro-ducts intended for the Exposition are ad-mitted, under this right, up to the 15th of March, Products of all kinds must be installed, and incomplete exhibitions entirely finished, by 15th of April, This date is obligatory.

Consequently the Commissioner-General re-serves to himself the right of disposing of all space which at the date above named is only partly occupied, or entirely unoccupied, by those to whom the space had been awarded. We give below the French law of , now in force, which guarantees the right to inventions susceptible of being patented which may be entered at any exposition under government authority ART.

The friends of protection to American industries were held up and pointed at as unnatural pa-tricides, whose policy was even driving Amer-ican workingmen out of the country to seek work in monarchial England. Time, which unravels so many mysteries, has already made plaiD the secret spring of the above transaction. It seems that the na-tive workmen of the Manchester builders had struck, and refused to work at the prices of-fered, or let others work, and to punish the strikers the bosses conceived the plan of im-porting workmen from this country.

The Manchester Eng. Examiner says, some ten or fifteen of the immigrants were at once frightened out of their engagement or per-suaded to abandon it by the striking joiners, who surrounded them immediately upon their arrival and pleaded that, though of different nationalities, they were brother workmen and should make common cause against a com-mon enemy. The contracts under which the Americans came to Manchester, continues the Examiner, it would appear, were signed be-fore they knew that any difficulties existed in the trade here.

As a guaranty of their per- men present took tneir turn at mem with a very heavy sledge-hammer, but a good fifteen minutes hard labor was entailed upon them before they managed to fracture one of the wheels, and this was only at last accom-plished in the weakest part of any wheel—between the spokes.

Other severe tests were applied which proved the specially tough quality of the steel used by Messrs. High Speed Blowing Engine. A series of experiments have been lately conducted at the Weimer Machine Works with a short stroke blowing engine built at the establishment for the Ogden Iron Corn pany, of Chicago.

The new engine has inch diameter steam cylinder, with inch diameter blowing cylinder, both cylinders having three-foot stroke. Before shipping the engine, Mr. Weimer determined to test its powers to the fullest capacity, and for this purpose connected the engine with the boilers of the works, forcing the blast gene-rated into a large air receiver especially erected for testing blowing engines. A large number of indicator diagrams were taken of both steam and air cylinders under various speeds and pressures.

The air pres-sure was frequently run up to pounds, and the speed attained was often over 75 revolutions per minute. The friction or "lost power " was only 34 per cent. From 10, to 12, feet of cubic air was discharged per minute at pressures varying from six to fourteen pounds per square inch. The Faris Exposition. The tardiness of our government in 'ac-cepting the invitation of France to take part in the International Exposition of , is discreditable to the enterprise of this great, wealthy and progressive nation.

England, our most formidable competitor in the mar-kets of the world, has been foremost among the nations of Europe in making prepara-tions to suitably display her productions at this forthcoming assemblage of the best crea-tions of art, science, and industry from every civilized quarter of the globe.

The people our country, whatever may be the disposi-tion of those who represent them in Con-gress, are fully alive to the importance and advantages of entering the lists as partici-pators in the largest and, we have reason to expect, the grandest Exposition ever held in the world. This fact is evinced by the ap-plications for space by citizens of the Unit-ed States, already numbering over , registered through General Noyes, our min-ister to France. We learn that M.

Coudert and the Count De Chambord French commissioners have given assurances that Americans shall have space to exhibit, even though our govern-ment does not formally accept the invitation. There is no reason to assign why the small appropriation now before Congress, recom-mended in the President's message of Oc-tober 15th, should not be promptly passed, as the time is far advanced for completing the arrangements necessary to a successful representation of American products.

While waiting for govermental action, time can be gained by making ready goods to be dis-played, and filing applications for space with the American minister at Paris. When it is remembered that all the space yet allotted to this country is only about by feet, and that applications for space already filed, nearly cover the whole of this area, it will be seen that no time should be lost in de-ciding to secure space for individual exhib-its.

In each section de-voted to exhibitors of the same nation, the articles exhibited will be divided into nine groups, one of which is devoted to "Tools and Processes of Mechanical Industries. No work of art, nor product exhibited in the exhibition buildings, parks or gardens, will be allowed to be drawn, copied or repro-duced, in any form whatsoever, without the permission of the exhibitor.

The Commissioner-General reserves to himself the right of authorizing the repro-duction of general views. Neither the French or foreign exhibitors have to pay any rent for the space they oc-cupy in the Exposition. The flooring is furnished to them in a substantial condition, and ready for use, in the whole precincts of the principal Exposition building in the Champ de Mars, with the exception of the machinery gallery ; and it cannot be modi-fied, displaced or strengthened, for the ne-cessities of installation, without the permis-sion of the Commissioner-General, and at the expense of the exhibitors.

They will have to bear alike all other expenses of ar-rangement, and of decorations, in the Ex-hibition buildings, parks and gardens. It is to be addressed to the Prefecture or the Sub-Prefecture, and accompanied with an exact description of the articles to be guaranteed, and, if possible, a plan or draw-ing of the said articles. If now they yield to the strikers' persuasions they find them-selves deprived of their tools, unable to get a job of work at their trade.

On the other hand, if they go to work, they are hooted at on the streets and pointed out as yankees who have come to England to take the bread out of the mouths of honest British workman. Nor is that all. Two of them have been stopped by some men, who warned them to quit work, or "take the consequences as soon as the dark nights came on.

The advocates of free trade will have to find some other hob-by to ride in their appeals to workingmen to undertake the work of self-immolation upon the altar erected by the Cobden Club of Eng-land. It requires no remarkable powers of perception none that even workingmen should not possess—to see the utter folly of attempting, even by force, to prevent me-chanics from working a few cents cheaper in this country, while the same goods they are thus prevented from producing are manufac-tured in another, country by workmen who receive but half or a quarter of the wages de-manded, are brought here and sold, free of duty.

If free trade is insisted upon in this country, it is simply that the workingmen here shall have no opportunity of dictating or advising the rate of wages their competitors shall demand. Fitting Wheels on Axles. On Friday afternoon, a number of colliery managers, engineers, and other gentlemen, assembled at the Bridge Street Works of Messrs.

Joseph Fenton and Sons, of Sheffield, to witness some trials of their patent method of fitting up wheels and axles. Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. CASE B. In making sand-molds for castings the molder has generally formed the mold by This improved mode of mechanical mold-ing may be carried on with the sections of any ordinary two-part flask. The half-flask is then fitted on to upper edge of the box, and box and flask loosely filled with sand.

A cap is then placed on top of the flask and fastened, and the plunger raised, compressing the sand about the p'at-tern. In this mode of molding the flask is filled with sand before compression, and the box only need contain enough to supply the quantity needed for the shrinkage in bulk on compression. Of course the quantity of sand and move-ment of the plunger must be such that the face of the latter will, when the work of compression is done, be flush with the edge of the flask to form a correct casting.

It is in this preliminary tilling of the flask with loose sand that this invention is distinguished from allbefore known, as thereby the ordinary half flask with bars to support the sand can be used. It will, however, be understood that it is not necessary that the flask should be absolutely filled with sand.

The term is intended to include the approximate filling of the half-box. When the pattern has thus been embedded in the compressed sand, it is withdrawn while the other sections of the follower sup-port the adjacent sand ; then such remaining sections are withdrawn, the half-flask re-c. The upper of these is a screw-shaft, E, work-ing in a female thread or nut in the bracket a. It is key-seated its entire length, and upon its top is a hand-wheel, F.

The lower portion L of the stock passes through the bracket b, and has its upper end confined in the shaft E, but is free to revolve therein. The portion of the stock G which pro-jects from the screw-shaft E is key-seated its entire length. The stock is made to revolve by a beveled pinion, h, feathered upon it, and gearing with the wheel B, as shown.

A vertical or feeding motion is im-parted to the stock by a pinion, I, whose key works in the seat of the screw-shaft E, and which receives motion from the idle-pinion n. It will be noticed that the upper 'end of the key-seat of the screw-shaft E terminates in an annular groove, y, whose function is quite important, for, when the shaft is screwed down, the key Of the pinion, I, enters this groove, and any further depression of the stock is prevented.

When it is desired to feed the drill by hand it is only necesOary to depress the lever p, and throw the pinion n out of en- gagement, when the stock can be raised or lowered by means of the hand-wheel F. In these machines the pattern and follower formed the movable bottom of a box, into which the sand was first placed, and over which a half-flask was then placed, and the plunger forced up, carrying with it the sand which was compressed in the half-flask about the pattern ; then the follower and pattern were withdrawn, sometimes at the same time, and sometimes the pattern first and then the follower.

This invention claims to have over-come the defects inherent in former ma-chines. The cut shows a vertical section of said machine, which is adapted for working this sections are withdrawn, the half-flask re-moved, and another substituted to form the complete mold. This invention has for its object certain improvements in vertical hand-drills for blacksmiths and other artisans, whereby great strength and efficiency are obtained, combined with simplicity of constrn The improvements consist in the combina-tion and arrangement of devices for regula-ting the feed, and in other details, as will be set forth.

In the accompanying drawings, Fig. A represents the frame-work of the ma-chine, of the shape shown, and provided at its upper part with two vertical and three horizontal journal-brackets, lettered, res-pectively, a, b, e, d, and e.

The driving-wheel B. The herein-described vertical drill, consist-ing of the frame A, with its brackets a, b, c, d, e, and D, parallel shafts f and h, pinions 1. The steam-chamber d surrounds the tube b, and the pipe e supplies steam to the same. To prevent a portion of the fusible metal from being melted out in advance of the main body, a flange is formed on the lower end of the inner cone.

In Figs. The machine for working the process does not form part of this application, and will be covered in a separate patent of even date herewith. I a plan view, and Fig. A represents the frame-work of the ma-chine, of the shape shown, and provided at its upper part with two vertical and three horizontal journal-brackets, lettered, res-pectively, a, b, c, d, and e. The driving-wheel B, with straight and beveled gears, as shown, is keyed upon a shaft, f, that is journaled in the brackets a and c, and has upon its outer end the actuat-ing-crank g.

Through the brackets d and e is journaled a shaft, it, on the outer end of which is keyed the fly-wheel C. Half-way between the brackets on this shaft is a worm, i, and meshing with the straight gear of the wheel B is a pinion, j, also keyed upon the shaft h.

Upon a vertical stud or shaft m, secured in the top of the frame A, Fig. D, Figs. On the outer corner of the bracket D are bearing-ears o, between which is pivoted the lever p. By pressing this lever down the pinion n is raised upon the shaft k until it is disengaged from the cone 1. When the lever near the base thereof is a chamber, it, opening latterly into such stand-pipe; and there is a valve at i, opening in-wardly, so that whenever the issuing jet of steam produces a vacuum ac-tion or minus pressure in the base of the stand-pipe, the valve will rise automatically, and allow air to pass into the stand-pipe with the steam and in aid of the same.

This invention relates to such fusible plugs as are formed with an inner cone, which is secured within an outer cone by means of an interposing stratum of fusible metal, which has hitherto been run in a melted state into the space between the two cones. The upper part, c, of the outer cone is bored or formed to a conical shape, and at the base of this cone is formed a cylindrical part, d, which is chased, or tapped, or formed with a screw-thread on the inside.

The inner cone, E, is made partly conical and partly cylindrical in form. The conical part is turned to a conical form, or is left rough, or is cast or formed with recesses or with flat sides. I prefer to form a screw-thread on the cylindrical part of the inner cone, and, when so formed, the conical part may be turned, and need not be formed with re-cesses or other means for holding the fusible metal. The base of the inner cone is formed with a flange, e, which is a little larger in diameter than the bore of the cylindrical part d.

The envelop of fusible metal is repre-sented by the dotted space between the parts A and E. This envelop is cast upon the inner cone E, and is subsequently turned and screwed or chased to fit and screw into the outer cone, A ; or it may be found to be convenient to cast the envelop of fusible metal upon the said inner cone in a mold which would be constructed to impart the required form to the outside of the said envelop, and to form the screw-thread upon the cylindrical part thereof, thus dispensing with the necessity for turning the fusible metal to fit the inside of the outer cone.

The envelop may be cast separate from the inner cone, and be subsequently screwed upon the inner cone, in which case the inner cone would be formed with a scrow-thread, Its in the drawing. It 15 Ce,ry that the outer surface of the envelop shall lit the interior of the cone c with sufficient oxatt-ness to prevent the escape of water when the inner cone is screwed into its place within the outer cone.

When so screwed into posi-tion the flange e covers the base of the envelop of fusible metal, and prevents the direct action of the fire upon such metal. In the case of plugs as previously con-structed, the fusible metal sometimes melts partially, so as to permit a slight escape of steam, which checks the complete fusion of the metal, and, the inner cone not being blown out, a sufficient outlet for the steam is not formed.

The flange e is intended to In this case the belt shall be of such an elas-ticity, that after it is put on the pulleys, 40 pounds more tension shall stretch the belt to twice its present length. Now if the 40 pounds of work is put upon the driven pulley and the driver is started, the driven pulley will not move until one-half of the work side of the belt has passed to the driver, and then each inch of the stretched part.

Thinli how the belt is stretched to make the ends meet when you lace it anew, and look at a belt running without a load, and then with all the load the belt can carry, and see the difference in the slack side, and you will see the elasticity of the belt very plainly. As all the difference in the slack side is the stretch of the work side of the belt. Now with the two belts and their pulleys ; if one belt has an elasticity of of an inch to each foot of its length, and the others of an inch to each foot of its length, then there will have to be a continual slip, one way or the other, of of an inch for every foot the belt travels.

Suppose that one-half of ones belt. This dif-ference is entirely due to the elasticity of the surface in contact. In putting on this cover, I warrant it to do double the work before the belt will slip ; and in practice, I have found it will do so in every case. Wrap of the belt has much more to do with fric-tion than is generally known.

We now have two pounds of friction or double,. There is found in some of the books on belt-ing, that if a belt is run over a large and a small pulley, the belt will slip on the large as much as on the small one. One end of the cover is riveted to the pulley and wound on firmly, fastening the edge by copper rivets, and the other end is finished by riveting in the same way. It is put on the pulley without taking it down or disturbing the shafting in any way.

The cover is claimed to transmit one hundred per cent more power than a plain pulley, that is, it will do twice as much work before the belt will slip. It is manufactured by John W. Sutton, 95 Liberty street, New York. The flange e is intended to prevent any portion of the fusible metal from running out until the whole of it is fused sufficiently to permit the inner cone to be blown out, the indicated defect in the ordinary plugs being thus remedied.

The arrangements for screwing the inner cone E, into position may be varied. For example, the said inner cone may be formed with an internal cavity, a part of which cavity is of an octagonal form, as seen in Fig. A key represented by Fig. The inner cone is formed with a shank projecting into or toward the fire-box or furnace. The lower end of this shank is squared or otherwise shaped to be turned with a screw, key, or spanner. The outer cone of a fusible plug, provided with screw-threads on the inside, in combination with the inner cone and its fusible-metal envelop, adapted to be screwed into the outer cone, substantially as described.

The combination of the threaded outer and inner cones with the envelop of fusible metal, adapted to be screwed into the outer cone and on to the inner one. The combination of the cone E, pro-vided with the rectangular collar e, with the outer cone and the intermediate fusible metal, as and for the purpose set forth. Slipping of Belts. Suppose that one-half of one belt stretches of an inch more than the other, and the other half stretches just the same ; here we have the slip intermittent ; no doubt this is the fact in every case of the kind, that the belts run together a part of their revolutions, and are opposed the rest of the time.

Or, as is always the case, they are not put on with the same tension, it is more aggravated. It may be laid down as positive, no two belts can be put on so that they will run together withoUt loss of power. In the books it is often found that leather belts will do more work if put on with the grain side next the pulley. A belt holds on a pulley by friction between the belt and pulley, and by nothing else. The amount of the friction depends upon pressure tension of the belt and the elasticity of the surface of one or both.

I now am speaking of another kind of elasticity, surface elasticity. I have here a six inch diameter pulley, and will slip it upon this small shaft ; it goes on freely and revolves easily, as you see. Here I have a piece of one inch leather belting, the usual belting sold by dealers, on one end of it is a 4 pound weight,- and on the other end is a loop to put my foot in—between the loop and where the belt goes over the pulley, I have put a spring balance, so that the exact amount of position can be seen in pounds.

Putting my foot in the loop and hanging the belt over the pulley, we have now the belt on the pulley with a tension of four pounds, the belt embracing one-half the circumference of the pulley. The end having the weight is the slack, and the loop end the work side of the belt. Collection Collection. Creator Creator. Language Language. American Machinist Volume 90 , Issue 7. Digitized from IA American Machinist Volume 94 , Issue American Machinist Volume 29 , Issue American Machinist Volume 55 , Issue American Machinist Volume , Issue American Machinist Volume 70 , Issue American Machinist Volume 84 , Issue None.

American Machinist Volume 86 , Issue None. American Machinist Volume 52 , Issue American Machinist Volume 61 , Issue American Machinist Volume 58 , Issue American Machinist Volume , Issue 6. American Machinist Volume 74 , Issue None. American Machinist Volume 90 , Issue American Machinist Volume 13 , Issue American Machinist Volume 95 , Issue American Machinist Volume 24 , Issue American Machinist Volume 92 , Issue 7. American Machinist Volume 67 , Issue American Machinist Volume 8 , Issue American Machinist Volume 87 , Issue None.

American Machinist Volume , Issue 7. American Machinist July , Volume 32 , Issue American Machinist Volume 7 , Issue American Machinist Volume 62 , Issue American Machinist Volume 72 , Issue American Machinist Volume 75 , Issue None. American Machinist Volume 76 , Issue American Machinist Volume 91 , Issue American Machinist Volume 12 , Issue 4. American Machinist Volume 12 , Issue American Machinist Volume 7 , Issue Index.

American Machinist Volume 18 , Issue 3. American Machinist Volume 31 , Issue American Machinist Volume 11 , Issue American Machinist November , Volume 28 , Issue American Machinist Volume 26 , Issue Index. American Machinist Volume 33 , Issue American Machinist Volume 59 , Issue American Machinist Volume , Issue Index.

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Wages in the Metalworking Industry: Where Are We Headed? - MACHINE SHOP TALK Ep. 35 american machinist

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