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From the late 16th century, manual slitters disappeared with the rise of the slitting mill , which cut bars of iron into rods with an even cross-section, saving much manual effort. At the time of the American Revolution , England was the largest manufacturer of nails in the world. Thomas Jefferson wrote in a letter: "In our private pursuits it is a great advantage that every honest employment is deemed honorable.
I am myself a nail maker. The production of wrought-iron nails continued well into the 19th century, but ultimately was reduced to nails for purposes for which the softer cut nails were unsuitable, including horseshoe nails. The slitting mill , introduced to England in , simplified the production of nail rods, but the real first efforts to mechanise the nail-making process itself occurred between and , initially in the United States and England , when various machines were invented to automate and speed up the process of making nails from bars of wrought iron.
Also in Sweden in the early s Christopher Polhem produced a nail cutting machine as part of his automated factory. Cut nails were one of the important factors in the increase in balloon framing beginning in the s and thus the decline of timber framing with wooden joints. The cut-nail process was patented in America by Jacob Perkins in and in England by Joseph Dyer, who set up machinery in Birmingham.
The process was designed to cut nails from sheets of iron, while making sure that the fibres of the iron ran down the nails. The Birmingham industry expanded in the following decades, and reached its greatest extent in the s, after which it declined due to competition from wire nails, but continued until the outbreak of World War I.
Wire nails are formed from wire. Usually coils of wire are drawn through a series of dies to reach a specific diameter, then cut into short rods that are then formed into nails. The nail tip is usually cut by a blade; the head is formed by reshaping the other end of the rod under high pressure.
Other dies are used to cut grooves and ridges. Wire nails were also known as "French nails" for their country of origin. Joseph Henry Nettlefold was making wire nails at Smethwick by Eventually the industry had machines capable of quickly producing huge numbers of inexpensive nails with little or no human intervention. With the introduction of cheap wire nails, the use of wrought iron for nail making quickly declined, as more slowly did the production of cut nails.
In the United States, in more steel-wire nails were produced than cut nails. Nails went from being rare and precious to being a cheap mass-produced commodity. Today almost all nails are manufactured from wire, but the term "wire nail" has come to refer to smaller nails, often available in a wider, more precise range of gauges than is typical for larger common and finish nails. Nails were formerly made of bronze or wrought iron and were crafted by blacksmiths and nailors.
These crafts people used a heated square iron rod that they forged before they hammered the sides which formed a point. After reheating and cutting off, the blacksmith or nailor inserted the hot nail into an opening and hammered it. For example, the Type A cut nails were sheared from an iron bar type guillotine using early machinery. This method was slightly altered until the s when new heads on the nails' ends were pounded via a separate mechanical nail heading machine.
In the s, iron bars were flipped over after each stroke while the cutter set was at an angle. Every nail was then sheared off of taper allowing for an automatic grip of each nail which also formed their heads. In , 10 percent of the nails that were made in the United States were of the soft steel wire variety and by , steel wire nails overtook iron cut nails as the main type of nails that were being produced.
In , wire nails were 90 percent of all nails that were produced. Today's nails are typically made of steel , often dipped or coated to prevent corrosion in harsh conditions or to improve adhesion. Ordinary nails for wood are usually of a soft, low-carbon or "mild" steel about 0. Nails for concrete are harder, with 0. Most countries, except the United States , use a metric system for describing nail sizes.
Lengths are rounded to the nearest millimetre. In the United States , the length of a nail is designated by its penny size. Nails of different metals and colors steel, brass, and copper were used to create a wide variety of designs and patterns. Once nails became cheap and widely available, they were often used in folk art and outsider art as a method of decorating a surface with metallic studs.
Another common artistic use is the construction of sculpture from welded or brazed nails. Nails were sometimes inscribed with incantations or signs intended for religious or mystical benefit, used at shrines or on the doors of houses for protection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Sharp object of hard metal used as a fastener. Play media. Main article: Penny unit. Roman bronze nails with magical signs and inscriptions, 3rd—4th century AD. December National Bureau of Economic Research. S2CID Cool Ice Cream Maker.
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